(a) SEM of thermally etched surface of KNNLT ceramics, (b) back-scattering image of polished surface of KNNLT ceramics and (c) EDX spectra corresponding to the spots numbered in (b).
(a) XRD pattern, (b) temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss, (c) polarization hysteresis loop and (d) unipolar electrostrain versus electric field curve of KNNLT ceramics.
Comparison of d 33 values measured by three distinctive methods.
Normalized strain d 33* as a function of temperature and the change of d 33* was normalized to its room temperature value d 33RT*.
Frequency dependence of normalized strain d 33* and the change of d 33* was normalized to the value obtained at 1 Hz d 33(1Hz)*. d 33* of KNNLT was also compared to that of KNNL (Ref. 20 ).
(a) PE, (b) SE, (c) d 33-E, and (d) -E of KNNLT ceramics before fatigue and after 103 and 104 bipolar fatigue cycles.
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