Index of content:
Volume 113, Issue 18, 14 May 2013
- Lasers, Optics, and Optoelectronics
113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804329View Description Hide Description
Laser ablation of chromium with nanojoule energy UV femtosecond pulses under background pressure conditions between 0.3 Torr and 700 Torr is studied and the corresponding plasma plume images at different times after irradiation are measured. The ablation focal spot is less than or the order of a micron when 170 nJ of laser pulse energy is used. This low pulse energy leads to short lifetimes of the plasma of the order of tens of nanoseconds. The plume shape changes with ambient pressure due to the collision with background gas. An axially stretched plume changes to a more circular plume as the pressure increases. In addition, a separation of the ionic and atomic components is observed at lower pressure. These two components move at significantly different velocities as well. The plasma plume expands at almost constant velocity at very low pressure but exhibits significant deceleration at higher pressure reaching an asymptotic stopping distance. Plume images are also obtained near the ablation threshold pulse energy. The plume characteristics are compared to different models of plume expansion.
113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4803845View Description Hide Description
A maskless nano-lithography method by using polystyrene spheres (PSs) self-assembled on silver slab (NSSL) was proposed by Li et al. [Opt. Express 16(19), 14397 (2008)]. In order to understand the mechanism of the lithography technology in depth and improve the experiment results, we studied the energy distribution and the frequency spectrum of incident lights passing through the PS and Ag film. To optimize parameters, the effects of several important factors on the resolution were analyzed. The curves of the optimal Ag film thickness and the highest lithography resolution versus the PS diameter were presented by calculations. Based on the results of the calculations, experiments under the optimization condition were performed and nano holes with dimension of 75 nm and a period of 600 nm were obtained.
113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804330View Description Hide Description
Sn doped ZnO nanostructures deposited on Si substrate with (100) orientation by spray pyrolysis method at temperature 450 °C. Sn/Zn atomic ratio varies from 0% to 5%. The scanning electron microscope measurements showed that size of particles reduce with increasing the doping concentration. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed formation of the wurtzite phase of ZnO. I-V curves of Sn doped ZnO/Si were investigated in dark and shows diode-like rectifying behavior. Among doped ZnO/Si, sample with atomic ratio of Sn/Zn = 5% is a good candidate to study photodiode properties in UV/visible range. Photoelectric effects have been observed under illumination monochromatic laser light with a wavelength of 325 nm and halogen lamp. Measurements demonstrate that the photodiode has high sensitivity and reproducibility to halogen light respect to laser light.
Three dimensional numerical study on the efficiency of a core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire light-emitting diodes113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804415View Description Hide Description
This paper presents the findings of investigating core-shell multiple quantum well nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A fully self-consistent three dimensional model that solves Poisson and drift-diffusion equations was employed to investigate the current flow and quantum-confined stark effect. The core-shell nanowire LED showed a weaker droop effect than that of conventional planar LEDs because of a larger active area and stronger recombination in nonpolar quantum wells (QWs). The current spreading effect was examined to determine the carrier distribution at the sidewall of core-shell nanowire LEDs. The results revealed that a larger aspect ratio by increasing the nanowire height could increase the nonpolar-active area volume and reduce the droop effect at the same current density. Making the current spreading length exceed a greater nanowire height is critical for using the enhancement of nonpolar QWs effectively, when an appropriate transparent conducting layer might be necessary. In addition, this paper presents a discussion on the influences of the spacing between each nanowire on corresponding nanowire diameters.
113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804659View Description Hide Description
The spatial resolution in traditional optical microscopy is limited by diffraction. This prevents imaging of features with dimensions smaller than half of the wavelength (λ) of the illumination source. Superlenses have been recently proposed and demonstrated to overcome this issue. However, its implementation often involves complex sample fabrication and lossy metal layers. Alternatively, a superlens without metals can be realized using surface waves as the illumination source at the interface between two dielectrics, at the total internal reflection condition, where one of the dielectrics is doped with a fluorescent material. Non-scanning far-field images with resolution of ∼λ/5 and without the need of any post-processing or image reconstruction can be achieved with this approach.
Insight into high-reflectivity AlN/GaN Bragg reflectors with spontaneously formed (Al,Ga)N transient layers at the interfaces113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4805054View Description Hide Description
This work gives a detailed insight into how the formation of (Al,Ga)N transient layers (TLs) at the interfaces of AlN/GaN Bragg reflectors modifies their structural and optical properties. While abrupt AlN/GaN interfaces are typically characterized with a network of microcracks, those with TLs are characterized with a network of nanocracks. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a strong correlation between strain and the TLs thickness, identifying thus the strain as the driving force for TLs formation. The AlN/GaN intermixing preserves the targeted stopband position (∼410 nm), whereas the peak reflectivity and the stopband width are both reduced, but still significantly high: >90% and >30 nm, respectively. To model their optical properties, a reduced refractive index contrast approximation is used, a novel method which yields an excellent agreement with the experiment.
- Plasmas and Electrical Discharges
Ozone generation by negative direct current corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804065View Description Hide Description
An analytical study was made in this paper for calculating the ozone generation by negative dc corona discharges. The corona discharges were formed in a coaxial wire-cylinder reactor. The reactor was fed by dry air flowing with constant rates at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, and stressed by a negative dc voltage. The current-voltage characteristics of the negative dc corona discharges formed inside the reactor were measured in parallel with concentration of the generated ozone under different operating conditions. An empirical equation was derived from the experimental results for calculating the ozone concentration generated inside the reactor. The results, that have been recalculated by using the derived equation, have agreed with the experimental results over the whole range of the investigated parameters, except in the saturation range for the ozone concentration. Therefore, the derived equation represents a suitable criterion for expecting the ozone concentration generated by negative dc corona discharges in dry air fed coaxial wire-cylinder reactors under any operating conditions in range of the investigated parameters.
Atmospheric pressure plasma jet—Living tissue interface: Electrical, optical, and spectral characterization113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804319View Description Hide Description
The atmospheric pressure plasma jet is studied as potential plasma source for medical applications in direct contact with living tissues. Plasma bullets are generated in the region of the high voltage electrode and propagate towards the tissue surface. The presence of a localized plasma structure on tissues, played here by a human fingertip, is experimentally revealed. It was found that this plasma structure is sustained by a current flowing through the tissue, with the magnitude dependent on the distance from the discharge tube. The characteristic time span of the plasma at the interface is up to and the diameter up to 5 mm. These parameters were studied using the two independent techniques: ultra-fast imaging and photomultiplier measurements. Generation of supplementary reactive species at the interface, the NO molecules, was proved by optical emission spectroscopy.
- Structural, Mechanical, Thermodynamic, and Optical Properties of Condensed Matter
113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4803052View Description Hide Description
PZT 95/5 ferroelectric ceramics have been used in shock-driven pulsed-power supplies for many years; their mechanical failure under shock compression plays an important role in dielectric breakdown. Shock experiments have been conducted to understand such failure by measuring the velocity of the free surface or the PZT/sapphire interface. Results confirm that delayed failure exists in PZT 95/5 before dynamic yielding at 2.4 GPa; multipoint measurements indicate that the failure layer in PZT 95/5 was not a plane but a rough front. The delay time and velocity of this layer had been determined by measuring samples of varying thicknesses at fixed pressure; results indicate that this velocity is the same as the shock-wave speed and the delay time decreases with increasing shock stress. At a shock stress of 4.9 GPa, the delay time falls to zero and a ramp wave is observed. This kind of failure is a new phenomenon in electric breakdown of PZT 95/5 under shock compression.
Terahertz, optical, and Raman signatures of monolayer graphene behavior in thermally reduced graphene oxide films113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4803713View Description Hide Description
We report on our joint spectroscopic study of the thermal reduction process of quasi-monolayer graphene oxide films grown on fused silica substrates by spin-coating. We estimate that about 65% of our film area consists of monolayer platelets of reduced graphene oxide, based on our quantitative analysis of the local atomic force microscopy topography. With thermal annealing under suitable conditions, clear signatures of monolayer graphene behavior were identified in the resonant excitonic absorption at 4.55 eV, the overall decrease in the visible-range transmission, the re-emergence of the Raman 2D band, the red-shift of the Raman G band toward the monolayer position, and the decrease in the optical sheet resistance in the terahertz range.
Formation mechanism of femtosecond laser-induced high spatial frequency ripples on semiconductors at low fluence and high repetition rate113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4803895View Description Hide Description
Periodic high spatial frequency ripples structures (HSFL) have been generated in silicon (Si) and in germanium (Ge) at very low fluence below or close to the melting fluence threshold, at different wavelengths and at high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses (80 MHz, 700–950 nm, 170 fs). HSFL initiation, formation, and arrangement combine structural modification of the surface initiated by heat accumulation of successive pulses with second harmonic generation. HSFL are wavelength dependent and the refractive index plays a central role on their periodicities. HSFL spacing follows quite well a law of , where is the modified femtosecond laser excited refractive index as a function of the wavelength for Si and Ge.
113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804061View Description Hide Description
The effect of diamond surface treatment on the Thermal Boundary Conductance (TBC) between Al and diamond is investigated. The treatments consist in either of the following: exposition to a plasma of pure Ar, Ar:H and Ar:O, and HNO3:H2SO4 acid dip for various times. The surface of diamond after treatment is analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, revealing hydrogen termination for the as-received and Ar:H plasma treated samples, pure sp2 termination for Ar treated ones and oxygen (keton-like) termination for the other treatments. At ambient, all the specific treatments improve the TBC between Al and diamond from 23 ± 2 MW m–2 K–1 for the as-received to 65 ± 5, 125 ± 20, 150 ± 20, 180 ± 20 MW m–2 K–1 for the ones treated by Ar:H plasma, acid, pure Ar plasma, and Ar:O plasma with an evaporated Al layer on top, respectively. The effect of these treatments on temperature dependence are also observed and compared with the most common models available in the literature as well as experimental values in the same system. The results obtained show that the values measured for an Ar:O plasma treated diamond with Al sputtered on top stay consistently higher than the values existing in the literature over a temperature range from 78 to 290 K, probably due a lower sample surface roughness. Around ambient, the TBC values measured lay close to or even somewhat above the radiation limit, suggesting that inelastic or electronic processes may influence the transfer of heat at this metal/dielectric interface.
113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804133View Description Hide Description
In this paper, we present an ab initio study within the framework of density functional theory employing the generalized gradient approximation applied to the study of the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of yttrium gallium garnet, Y3Ga5O12, under hydrostatic pressure. The calculated structural ground state properties are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Pressure dependence of the elastic constants and the mechanical stability are analysed up to 90 GPa, showing that the garnet is mechanically unstable above 84 GPa. We also present the electronic band structure calculations which show that upon compression the fundamental direct gap first increases up to 63 GPa and later monotonically decreases under pressure.
113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804256View Description Hide Description
Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence has been observed in Bi-doped oxyfluoride glasses excited from UV to near-infrared regions with the addition of AgCl. Enhancement factors depend greatly on excitation wavelength and maximal enhancement factor over three times occurs at the excitation wavelength around 320, 640, and 800 nm. Ag species play dual functions. The mechanism of the enhancement is discussed in depth combing the energy transfer from Ag +, molecular-like, nonplasmonic Ag species, Bi3+ and Bi2+ to near-infrared bismuth active centers, and the redox reaction of Bi species with Ag species. These results offer a valuable way to enhance the near-infrared luminescence efficiency of Bi-doped glasses, and the dual functions of Ag species may also be employed to enhance luminescence of rare-earth and transition metal ions doped materials.
Rate equation model for the time dependence of the reflectance of a Ge2Te2Sb5 film during optical switching processes113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4803543View Description Hide Description
We apply a rate equation model in order to simulate the measured change of the reflectance of an epitaxially grown Ge 2Te2Sb5 (GST) film during optically induced switching between the amorphous and crystalline phases of the material. The amorphization and the re-crystallization process are considered to exhibit different switching rates, which depend on the actual value of the energy fluence of the applied laser pulse. The measured time dependence of the reflectance of the GST film as a measure of its degree of crystallinity is qualitatively reproduced by the rate equation model demonstrating that both processes can occur simultaneously during the switching process, but with different rates.
113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804266View Description Hide Description
We have investigated the optical properties of tensile-strained germanium grown on InGaAs buffer layers as a function of film thickness and buffer layer composition. We study the dependence of the photoluminescence as a function of the strain amplitude and degree of relaxation which are also monitored by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. We show that 0.75% biaxially strained germanium can be obtained up to a thickness of 150 nm, a value sufficiently high to allow confinement of the spontaneous emission in a guiding structure. For large thicknesses (>200 nm) and large indium content in the buffer layer, a partial relaxation of the film is observed characterized by a large in-plane anisotropy of the germanium lattice. In this case, a difference of strain magnitude deduced either by microphotoluminescence spectra or by X-ray or Raman measurements is reported. We explain this difference by the sensitivity of microphotoluminescence to the local properties of the material. This study provides guidelines in order to achieve high optical quality and high biaxial tensile strain in Ge films with thicknesses compatible with optical waveguiding.
113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804307View Description Hide Description
Methods are described to probe vibrational transitions of molecules adsorbed on Au films subjected to calibrated ultrafast large-amplitude temperature jumps (T-jumps). The probe technique, vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG), can monitor vibrations localized on specific parts of adsorbate molecules in the form of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Substrates had a thin Cr adhesion layer and an Au film that could withstand millions of T-jumps without laser damage of film or adsorbate. The substrate flash-heating process was characterized using ultrafast reflectance measurements. Reflectance transients induced by both 800 nm or 400 nm femtosecond pulses had overshoot-decay-plateau structures. The overshoots and decays represented optically generated hot electrons, and the plateaus gave the equilibrium temperature increase ΔT, which was in the 30–175 K range. The combination of SFG adsorbate and Au surface reflectance measurements was used to assess the effects of adsorbate vibrational heating by both hot electrons and the hot Au lattice. Two types of SAMs were investigated, nitrobenzenethiolate (NBT), where SFG probed nitro groups located 4 carbon atoms from the surface, and octadecylthiolate (ODT), where SFG probed terminal methyl groups 17 carbon atoms from the surface. With ΔT = 175 K, the NBT nitro transition νs(NO2) showed time-dependent intensity loss, redshifting, and broadening. These three kinds of transients also had overshoot-decay-plateau structures, which resulted from the interplay of hot electron excitation of higher-frequency vibrations including the probed vibration, and Au lattice heating of lower-energy vibrations and the conformational modes that cause reversible disordering of the SAM structure. The relative importance of these effects was different for the overshoot and plateau regions, and for the intensity, redshifting, and broadening effects. With ODT, T-jumps caused the terminal methyl groups to become disordered, and the disordering process was nonexponential in time. From the ratio of symmetric to antisymmetric CH-stretching intensities, the ensemble-averaged methyl tilt angle could be determined. With smaller T-jumps, the methyl groups gradually increased their tilt by a small amount during ∼200 ps, while with larger T-jumps where ΔT = 175 K, the methyl groups abruptly reoriented toward the surface normal and then tilted gradually away from the normal in the next 20 ps.
The effect of polarization fatigue process and light illumination on the transport behavior of Bi0.9La0.1FeO3 sandwiched capacitor113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804308View Description Hide Description
In this paper, Ag/Bi0.9La0.1FeO3 (BLFO)/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 sandwich structure was grown epitaxially on SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Short-circuit photocurrent (Ishort) and frequency dependence of the capacitance were investigated. It reveals that this heterostructure exhibits strong photocurrent responses, the orientation of Ishort depends strongly on the polarization orientations, and it varies monotonically from one orientation to the other as the polarization orientation switching gradually from upward (downward) to downward (upward), the Ishort value becomes zero when the film is in zero polarization states. The intensity of the Ishort can be strengthened by several times after thousands of bipolar electric pulses. Moreover, after polarization fatigue process of bipolar electric pulses or under light illumination, the capacitance of this sandwich structure is always bigger than the original state. However, the magnifying ratio of the capacitance after and before polarization fatigue process or under light illumination decrease with increasing the frequency in the C-f curves. These results suggest that polarization induced surface charge combined with migration of oxygen vacancies is the primary driving force for the varying of interfacial barriers and the oxygen vacancies density near the interface, which in turn leads to different orientations and values of Ishort as well as the differential interfacial capacitance. Our results indicate that the photovoltaic response in ferroelectric BLFO thin films could be further explored for solar light photovoltaic and other capacitor devices applications.
Strain-related optical properties of ZnO crystals due to nanoindentation on various surface orientations113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804309View Description Hide Description
Nanoindentations were performed on various crystallographic orientations of single crystal ZnO using a cono-spherical diamond tip with a radius of curvature of 260 nm. The crystal orientations were the ( ) a-plane, ( ) m-plane, and (0001) c-plane (Zn-face). The optical properties associated with nanoindentation have been investigated by cathodoluminescence. The load-displacement curves show that the c-plane is the most resistive to deformation, followed by the m-plane, and the a-plane. A large number of non-radiative defects are created directly below the indentation, regardless of the crystal orientation. Nanoindentation on the a- and m-plane crystals activates slip along the (0001) basal planes, creating a band of non-radiative defects as well as tensile strain along the basal planes. Compressive strain is observed perpendicularly to the basal planes due to an absence of easy-glide mechanisms in these directions. The nanoindentation on the c-plane crystal results in regions under tensile strain extending away from the indentation along the six-fold a-directions.
113(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4804312View Description Hide Description
We report on the stability of the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin film surface when deposited on (111)-oriented SrTiO3. For ultrathin La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 films, an initial 3-dimensional morphology is observed, which becomes 2-dimensional with increasing film thickness. For even thicker samples, we show that the surface morphology evolves from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional and that this observation is consistent with an Asaro-Tiller-Grinfeld instability, which can be controlled by the deposition temperature. This allows for synthesis of films with step-and-terrace surfaces over a wide range of thicknesses. Structural characterization by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy shows that the films are strained to the SrTiO3 substrate and reveals the presence of an elongated out-of-plane lattice parameter at the interface with SrTiO3.