(a) The schematics of PFM probing of 180° out-of-plane domains having domain wall parallel to x 3 axis, with the SPM tip approximated as an effective point charge Q located at the distance d away from the probed surface; the out-of-plane displacement u 3 of (b) 180° domain and (c) 90° domain under different SPM tip radius R 0, with wR being the nominal PFM domain wall thickness identified (only shown for ); and (d) correlation between wR and R 0 for 180° and 90° domains.
(a) The schematics of PFM probing of 90° strip domain with domain wall parallel to x 3 axis; (b)-(f) the phase mappings of u 3 for different domain size L under different tip radius R 0.
(a) The schematics of PFM probing of 180° in-plane domains with domain walls tilted from x 3 axis; (b) u 1 of 180° domains in-plane at , versus u 3 of 180° domains out-of-plane; (c) correlation between PFM domain thickness wR and tip radius R 0; (d) the schematics of PFM probing of 180° strip domains; (e)-(g) the phase mappings of u 1 for different domain size L with tip radius .
(a) The schematics of embedded square cylindrical domain in 2D side view; and the phase mappings of u 3 with embedded depth at (b) h = 1 nm, (c) 3 nm, and (d) 4 nm, with R 0 = 25 nm.
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