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Voltage-driven perpendicular magnetic domain switching in multiferroic nanoislands
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10.1063/1.4804157
/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4804157
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4804157

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematics of (a) the high-density patterned bit array and (b) the building block, i.e., a multiferroic nanoisland grown on a substrate. An electric-voltage () is applied perpendicularly to the ferroelectric (FE) layer between the top magnetic layer and the bottom electrode. (c) The in-plane stress distribution along the cross section at the center of FE island: (from top to bottom) 32 × 32 × 60 nm, 64 × 64 × 60 nm, 128 × 128 × 60 nm, and a fully constrained FE thin film. The biaxial strain from the substrate is taken as (0.2%, 0.2%).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Typical magnetic (the first row) and ferroelectric (FE) (the second row) domain structures in as-grown multiferroic CoFeB(CoFeB)/BaTiO(BTO) nanoislands under the substrate-imposed (a) tensile strain of (0.2%, 0.2%), (b) (0,0), and (c) compressive strain of (−0.2%,−0.2%). The lateral size (length and width) of both the magnetic and FE layers varies from 32 × 32 nm to 128 × 128 nm. The thicknesses of the CoFeB and BTO are 30 nm and 60 nm, respectively. Each color and corresponding arrow represent one specific magnetic or FE domain orientation, where the same color scheme and notation (e.g., , , ) are used for simplicity.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Voltage-induced changes in (a) the volume fraction of perpendicular ( , ) domain in 32 × 32 × 30 nm magnetic CoFeB layer and (c) the in-plane strain in the 32 × 32 × 60 nm BTO island under substrate strains of (−0.2%,−0.2%), (0,0), and (0.2%,0.2%), respectively. (b) Magnetic (the first row) and FE (the second row) domain structure evolutions at Points A (remnant state), B (coercivity), and C (saturation) upon a tensile substrate strain of (0.2%, 0.2%) on the BTO islands. The arrows indicate the magnetic or FE domain orientations.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Voltage-induced changes in (a) the volume fraction of perpendicular ( , ) domain in 64 × 64 × 30 nm magnetic CoFeB layer and (c) in-plane strain in the 64 × 64 × 60 nm BTO island under substrate strains of (−0.2%,−0.2%), (0,0), and (0.2%,0.2%), respectively. (b) Magnetic (the first row) and FE (the second row) domain structure evolutions at Points A (remnant state), B(coercivity), and C (saturation) upon a tensile substrate strain of (0.2%, 0.2%) on the BTO islands. The arrows indicate the magnetic or FE domain orientations.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Voltage-induced changes in (a) the volume fraction of perpendicular ( , ) domain in 128 × 128 × 30 nm magnetic CoFeB layer and (c) in-plane strain in the 128 × 128 × 60 nm BTO island under substrate strains of (−0.2%,−0.2%), (0,0), and (0.2%,0.2%), respectively. (b) Magnetic (the first row) and FE (the second row) domain structure evolutions at Points A (remnant state), B(coercivity), and C (saturation) upon a tensile strain of (0.2%, 0.2%) on the BTO islands. The arrows indicate the magnetic or FE domain orientations.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Lateral size (length and width) dependence of the maximum voltage-driven changes in (a) the perpendicular magnetic (i.e., plus ) domain fraction change and (b) the in-plane electromechanical strain ; (c) the ferroelectric coercive voltage . The multiferroic CoFeB/BTO nanoislands are subjected to substrate-imposed in-plane strains of compressive (−0.2%, 0.2%), zero, and tensile (0.2%, 0.2%), respectively. The thicknesses of the CoFeB and BTO layers are set as 30 nm and 60 nm, respectively.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

The residual strains in as-grown BTO islands of different lateral sizes upon relaxed substrate-imposed isotropic compressive, zero, and tensile strains.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4804157
2013-05-15
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Voltage-driven perpendicular magnetic domain switching in multiferroic nanoislands
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4804157
10.1063/1.4804157
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