Cross-sectional TEM image of the whole SiO2 layer implanted with 3 keV and 4.7 × 1015 at./cm2. In inset, high resolution image of a Ag nanoparticle.
Comparison of the nanoparticles position (average distance of the nanoparticle center with respect to the surface) measured by TEM (star symbols) with the projected range predicted by TRIDYN (circles) with increasing energy and “low” doses (concentrations ≤20 at. % at the peak maximum). On the top, cross-sectional TEM images of the samples implanted with increasing energy (from 0.6 to 20 keV) and doses leading to concentrations ≤20 at. % at the peak maximum.
Cross-sectional TEM images of the layers implanted with a fixed energy (10 keV) and increasing doses: (a)–(d) zoom of the layers implanted with 7.12 × 1015 cm−2, 9.5 × 1015 cm−2, 1.9 × 1016 cm−2, and 3.8 × 1016 cm−2, respectively. (e)–(h) are the associated plan-view images.
(a) TRIDYN simulations of the profiles for the different doses (7.12 × 1015, 9.5 × 1015, 1.9 × 1016, 3.8 × 1016 cm−2) at 10 keV. (b) Dependence of the projected range on implanted dose predicted by TRIDYN (black circles) and measured by TEM (green up triangles) for a fixed implantation energy (10 keV).
Experimental measurement of the surface recession: cross-sectional TEM image of the sample implanted at 20 keV for 4.65 × 1016 cm−2 (a) with the surface hidden by a Cr mask deposed before implantation, and (b) without mask. (c) Dependence of the surface recession on implanted dose predicted by TRIDYN (dashed line) and measured by TEM (blue squares), and by optical reflectance (red circles) for a fixed implantation energy (20 keV).
Experimental (continuous lines) and theoretical (dotted lines) reflectance curves of samples implanted at 20 keV with three different doses. The curves to high doses have been arbitrary shifted for clarity.
Experimental Ag depth-distribution (dots) deduced from RBS measurements compared to the corresponding theoretical implanted profile (continuous line) predicted by TRIDYN simulations (divided by 5) for the sample implanted at 10 keV with 1.9 × 1016 ions/cm2. The associated XTEM image is at the back of the figure.
Implanted dose (number of Ag atoms/cm2) in the nanoparticles measured by TEM (red stars) compared to the dose predicted by TRIDYN (blue circles) and to the quantity of Ag present in the whole layer as measured by RBS (green up triangle). The dotted line indicates the nominal dose.
List of the implanted samples. The dose values (referred as “nominal” in the text) have been determined by a calibration of the implantation setup.
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