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Mesoscopic analysis of leakage current suppression in ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 nano-laminates
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10.1063/1.4804670
/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4804670
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4804670
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

GI-XRD results of the as-deposited ((a) and (b)) and annealed ((c) and (d)) ZrO ((a) and (c), left) and ZAZ ((b) and (d), right) films. (a) The ZrO is nanocrystalline directly after deposition. (c) After RTP, crystallization is more pronounced. (b) ZAZ-nanolaminates exhibit no clear crystallization. (d) RTP induces crystallization in ZAZ-films.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

HRTEM images of (a) As-deposited ZrO (b) ZrO annealed at 900 °C in N. The incipient crystallization visible in (a) is changed to full crystallization in (b).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

HRTEM images of (a) As-deposited ZAZ (b) ZAZ annealed at 900 °C in N. After deposition, no crystallites are visible in (a). After RTP, HRTEM depicts crystallization in (b).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Capacitance ((a) and (c)) and dielectric loss ((b) and (d)) plotted over frequency for the ZrO films ((a) and (b)) and ZAZ nanolaminates ((c) and (d)).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) As-deposited ZrO: I-V loops measured at room temperature with increasing maximal voltage V. V ranged from 1.0 V to 2.7 V. (b) As-deposited ZrO: I-V loops measured at temperatures ranging from −20 °C to 120 °C. Note negative hysteresis for low temperatures and positive hysteresis for higher temperatures. (c) Annealed ZrO: I-V loops measured at temperatures ranging from −40 °C to 140 °C in 0.1 V steps. No negative hysteresis for low temperatures and slight positive hysteresis for higher temperatures is observed.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

As-deposited ZAZ: (a) I-V loops measured at room temperature with increasing maximal voltage V. V ranged from 1.0 V to 2.7 V. (b) As-deposited ZAZ: I-V loops measured at temperatures ranging from −40 °C to 180 °C. Note negative hysteresis for low temperatures and positive hysteresis for higher temperatures. (c) Annealed ZAZ: I-V loops measured automatically at temperatures ranging from −40 °C to 100 °C. Negligible hysteresis for low temperatures and slight positive hysteresis for higher temperatures is observed.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Arrhenius plots extracted from Fig. 2(a) . For as-deposited ZrO, (a) First (increasing) branch of the I-V loop, (b) Second (decreasing) branch of the I-V loop. ((b) and (c)) Arrhenius plots extracted from Fig. 2(c) . For annealed ZrO, (c) First (increasing) branch of the I-V loop, (d) Second (decreasing) branch of the I-V loop.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Arrhenius plots extracted from Fig. 3(a) . For annealed ZrO, (a) First (increasing) branch of the I-V loop, (b) Second (decreasing) branch of the I-V loop. ((b) and (c)) Arrhenius plots extracted from Fig. 3(c) . For annealed ZAZ, (c) First (increasing) branch of the I-V loop, (d) Second (decreasing) branch of the I-V loop.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Arrhenius plots of the difference ΔJ between the increasing and the decreasing branch of the I-V loops depicted in Figs. 2(b) and 3(b) for ZrO (a) and ZAZ (b), respectively.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a) AFM morphology of annealed ZrO. (b) Current map of annealed ZrO. (c) AFM morphology of annealed ZAZ. (d) Current map of annealed ZAZ. Crystallization induces higher surface roughness and more significant grain boundaries. These are the origin of high leakage currents. The inclusion of just two ALD cycles of AlO suppresses this effect.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Hysteresis distribution and total leakage spot density extracted from the local I-V spectra. These were obtained on the as-deposited (a) and the annealed (b) ZrO and the as-deposited (c) and annealed (d) ZAZ. The empty bars indicate the fraction of leakage spots that were still visible in a later scan of the area at 2 V after the acquisition of the image series. This is an indication for hard breakdown.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4804670
2013-05-15
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Mesoscopic analysis of leakage current suppression in ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 nano-laminates
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4804670
10.1063/1.4804670
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