Schematic of heat energy transportation in laser-nanoparticles interaction process is shown. In the post-pulse solidification stage, the nanoparticles will experience a crystallization or recrystallization process depending on the resulting temperature in previous stages.
Schematic of EM-HT simulation model. EM module was solved to obtain resistive heating in step 1. In step 2, the coupled HT model with resistive heating as heat source was solved to acquire the final temperature distribution.
(a) Multiphysics modeling setup of multilayers in DPLC of CIS; (b) Actual cross sectional view of CIS/Mo/SLG FESEM image; (c) Representative resistive heating (QRH) and temperature (T) fields as a result of DPLC processing of CIS nanoparticles (50 nm) with laser fluence of 24 mJ/cm2 after one pulse.
CIS nanoparticle size dependence on temperature raise per unit laser fluence (ΔT, solid curve with triangle symbols) and laser fluence needed to reach crystallization (Fc , dashed curve with square symbols) as a result of DPLC.
Temperature distribution in different layers of a CIS/Mo/SLG configuration as a result of DPLC processing.
Morphology characterization of top surface of thin film after DPLC of nanoCIS of various laser fluence: (a) 10 mJ/cm2: under optimal; (b)16 mJ/cm2: under optimal; (c) 24 mJ/cm2: optimal; (d) 34 mJ/cm2: over optimal; and simulated temperature history of various laser fluences (16, 24, 34 mJ/cm2)
Mechanism of DPLC of CIS nanocrystal thin film and different phases of crystal growth at 24 mJ/cm2: (a) as-received, (b) 10 pulses, (c) 20pulses, and (d) 30 pulses.
Top surface morphology of CIS thin film at different pulse number when too high laser was applied (F = 30 mJ/cm2). (a) 20 pulses, (b) 30pulses, (c) 35 pulses, and (d) 45 pulses.
Top surface morphology of CIS thin film at different pulse number when too low laser was applied (F = 19 mJ/cm2). (a) 20 pulses, (b) 30pulses, (c) 35 pulses, and (d) 45 pulses.
Combinational effects of laser fluence and pulse number to trigger laser ablation of nanoCIS thin film.
The size effects of nanoCIS on melting point (Tm), conductivities (κ, σ), and heat capacity (Cp) at different sizes used in this study. 30–32
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