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Kinetics and thermodynamics associated with Bi adsorption transitions at Cu and Ni grain boundaries
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10.1063/1.4805361
/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4805361
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4805361
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Schematic showing the temperature dependent free energy of a grain boundary with a fixed misorientation and grain boundary plane exhibiting 2 different complexions. The schematic also highlights the general experimental approach where samples are pre-annealed at temperatures above and below a transition temperature and then diffusion anneals are subsequently performed at lower temperatures in order to approximate Δγ. (b) Schematic following Ref. depicting the general concept and assumptions used in the Borisov model to relate γ to diffusivity.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic describing the predictions of the Borisov model for (a) a decrease in ΔH at fixed S and ν* and (b) an increase in ΔS at fixed H and ν*.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Rutherford backscattering spectra for Cu-Ni calibration samples of different nominal composition, (b) the calibration curve determined from the combined results of SIMS and RBS.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Chemical tracer profiles for constant source Cu diffusion into the (a) 773 K and (b) 1173 K pre-annealed Ni-Bi sample at 473 K, 423 K, 373 K, and 300 K. Note: 523 K and 473 K diffusion profiles of the 973 K pre-annealed Ni-Bi sample were obtained using 5 nm Cu (instantaneous) diffusion source.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Chemical tracer profiles for constant source Au diffusion into the (a) 773 K and (b) 1173 K pre-annealed Cu-Bi sample at 473 K, 423 K, 373 K, and 300 K.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Dependence of diffusivity on inverse diffusion temperature in (a) Cu-Bi and (b) Ni-Bi samples.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

In-plane STEM micrographs of the microstructures after the pre-annealing for (a) Ni-Bi at 573 , (b) Ni-Bi at 973 K, (c) Cu-Bi at 773 K, and (d) Cu-Bi at 1173 K. Note: the bright contrasts in the grain of (d) are primarily from occluded Bi particles.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(a) HAADF-STEM image of Cu annealed with Bi at 1173 K highlighting a region where Bi has been occluded in the Cu grain, and (b) a TEM micrograph of the occluded Bi nanoparticles that are distinguished by the Moire fringes.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4805361
2013-05-17
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Kinetics and thermodynamics associated with Bi adsorption transitions at Cu and Ni grain boundaries
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/19/10.1063/1.4805361
10.1063/1.4805361
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