1 Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries, Ministry of Education and Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023, People's Republic of China
2 State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023, People's Republic of China
3 State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888 Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033, People's Republic of China
The effects of post-annealing on conductivity of phosphorus-doped ZnO (PZO) films grown at 500 °C by radio frequency magnetron sputtering are investigated in a temperature ranging from 600 °C to 900 °C. The as-grown PZO exhibits n-type conductivity with an electron concentration of 1.19 × 1020 cm−3, and keeps n-type conductivity as annealed at 600 °C-700 °C but electron concentration decreases with increasing temperature. However, it converts to p-type conductivity as annealed at 800 °C. Further increasing temperature, it still shows p-type conductivity but the hole concentration decreases. It is found that the P occupies mainly Zn site (PZn) in the as-grown PZO, which accounts for good n-type conductivity of the as-grown PZO. The amount of the PZn decreases with increasing temperature, while the amount of Zn vacancy (VZn) increases from 600 °C to 800 °C but decreases greatly at 900 °C, resulting in that the amount of PZn-2VZn complex increases with increasing temperature up to 800 °C but decreases above 800 °C. It is suggested that the PZn-2VZn complex acceptor is responsible for p-type conductivity, and that the conversion of conductivity is due to the change of the amount of the PZn and PZn-2VZn with annealing temperature.
Received 19 December 2012Accepted 01 May 2013Published online 20 May 2013
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 10874178, 11074093, 61205038, and 11274135, Natural Science Foundation of Jilin province under Grant No. 201115013, and National Found for Fostering Talents of Basic Science under Grant No. J1103202.
Article outline: I. INTRODUCTION II. EXPERIMENTAL III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION IV. CONCLUSIONS