SEM micrographs of titania nanofibrous structures synthesized on a Ti substrate at laser repetition of (a) 4 MHz, (b) 8 MHz, and (c) 12 MHz.
The number of ablated atoms from a Ti target, ablated at different laser pulse repletion rates at laser pulse dwell time of 1 ms predicted by Eq. (10) , depicted by the blue hollow line. The red solid line represents the absorbed laser fluence by the Ti target at different laser pulse repetition rates and constant average power of 10 W. The dashed line determines the laser ablation threshold of 0.48 for Ti.
The average evaporation rate for ablation by a single pulse at different laser fluences predicted by Eq. (7) .
TEM micrographs of Ti nanofibers synthesized at repetition (a) 4 MHZ, (b) 8 MHz, and (c) 12 MHz (the scale bar: 100 nm).
Measured average nanoparticle diameter at different laser pulse repletion rates.
Measured average pore size of synthesized structures at different laser pulse repletion rates.
The number of ablated atoms from a Ti target ablated at different laser dwell times and laser pulse repetition rates predicted by Eq. (10) .
XRD patterns of titania nanofibrous structure synthesized on Ti substrate after laser irradiation.
Schematic illustration of the synthesis process of titania nanofibrous structure using femtosecond laser ablation of a Ti target.
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