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Top-down fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures for deterministic coupling to single quantum emitters
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Sample design and measurement approach. (a) We fabricate a metal nanowire deterministically on top of an NV center contained in a diamond nanocrystal on a glass substrate. Precise localization of the emitter can be done with respect to prefabricated position markers (indicated in the top right of the sample). The emitter can be characterized before and after fabrication in a confocal microscope through the back side of the substrate. (b) Simulated propagation length of wires from different metals. The simulation does not take into account the graininess of the material resulting from deposition by evaporation. (c) Simulated emission enhancement of an emitter located underneath a metal wire. For simplicity, we ignore the effect of the diamond nano-particle in the simulation. We assume that the wire is placed directly on the glass surface, with the emitter embedded in the substrate 20 nm underneath the surface and centered under the wire, with a single radiating dipole oriented in vertical direction.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Deterministic placement of metal nanowires onto pre-selected single NV centers. (a) Confocal scan of a sample part, showing photoluminescence (PL) versus position. The spots encircled with dashed lines and the large structure on the left are gold markers. Spots encircled with solid lines are identified NV centers. (b)–(d) NV characterization (emitter marked with a star in panel (a)). (b) Lifetime, measured with pulsed excitation. The solid line is a fit to a single-exponential decay with offset. (c) Spectrum of the negatively charged NV center (NV ) with characteristic zero-phonon line at 637 nm. (d) Antibunching in the second-order correlation function verifies that the emitter is single. Solid line is a fit to a three level model, 20 the dashed line marks the calibrated background-level. (e) Generated pattern for electron-beam lithography (left) and optical microscopy image after fabrication (right).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Post-fabrication characterization. (a) Confocal scan after fabrication. Insets: zoom-in onto wires placed onto single NV centers. Time-filtering the PL signal allows for localizing the NV center; (b) we filter the PL in time by defining a region of interest (ROI) such that strong, short-lived PL from metal and fabrication residues is suppressed. (c) Typical lifetimes of NV centers without (“-”) wire and with silver (“Ag”) and aluminum (“Al”) wire placed on top. (d) Histogram of NV center lifetimes before and after wire fabrication.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Top-down fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures for deterministic coupling to single quantum emitters