(a) X-ray diffraction patterns of the Co2SnO4 in the form of polycrystalline powder and bulk pellet with Miller indices of the peaks marked. The two weak reflections due to SnO2 minor phase are indicated with an asterisk (∗). (b) Scanning electron micrograph of pellet showing particles with sizes 3–5 μm.
Temperature dependence of the magnetization M(T) in the range 2–60 K under ZFC and FC conditions with H = 200 Oe,1 kOe, and 2 kOe). The right hand side scale shows the difference in the magnetization ΔM under FC and ZFC conditions.
Plots of d(χT)/dT versus T plots at various external fields H = 200 Oe, 1 kOe, and 2 kOe. The insets depict the d(χT)/dT plotted with a logarithmic scale to show the variation in the peak clearly.
Plots of χ versus T and χ−1 versus T for temperatures up to 350 K are shown. The solid lines are fits to the Néel's expression for ferrimagnets discussed in the text.
Hysteresis loops (M versus H) recorded at T = 30, 40, and 50 K from H = −50 kOe to +50 kOe.
Temperature dependence of ac magnetic susceptibilities: (a) real part χ′(T), and (b) imaginary χ″(T) component of bulk Co2SnO4 recorded at various bias fields Hdc = 20, 50, 100, and 150 Oe with constant frequency of 2 Hz and amplitude of 1 Oe under zero field condition. The insets (a)–(c) depict the same curves at various temperature regimes to show the transitions better.
Temperature variation of d(χ′T)/dT plots at different bias fields Hdc = 20, 50, 100, and 150 Oe. Notice the shift in the peak positions with increase in the bias field similar to the variation in χ″(T ).
Variation of ferrimagnetic Néel temperature TN and spin-glass transition temperature TSG with respect to Hdc 2/3. The solid lines show the linear fit to the data (often called the de Almeida-Thouless AT line) whereas the dotted line for TN is for visual aid.
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