Formation of wrinkled structure by buckling.
Fabrication concept of freestanding wrinkled film.
Apparatus for applying strain to silicone rubber sheet; applied strains in the x and y directions can be controlled separately.
Freestanding nano-film specimen for tensile experiment (unit: mm).
Wrinkled structure by uniaxial strain (stripe structure).
Wrinkled structure by equi-biaxial strain (labyrinth structure).
Wrinkled structures by biaxial strain.
Stress-strain curves obtained from tensile experiments for freestanding wrinkled films (stripe structure).
Cyclic loading experiment for freestanding wrinkled film (U4, stripe structure).
Stress-strain curves obtained from tensile experiments for freestanding wrinkled film (labyrinth structure); Ex: loading in x-direction, Ey: loading in y-direction in Fig. 6(a) .
Stress-strain curves obtained from tensile experiments for freestanding wrinkled films (nonsymmetrical buckling structure); Bx: loading in x-direction, By: loading in y-direction in Fig. 7(d) .
Summary of stress-strain curves of Cu nano-films with various wrinkled structures.
Comparison of stress-strain curves of FEM analyses and experiments.
Mises stress distributions at fracture strain.
Parametric study of stress-strain curves of wrinkled films by FEM.
Conditions of wrinkle formation; h: thickness of sacrificial resin layer, ε ap. x : applied strain in x-direction, ε ap. y : applied strain in y-direction, tx : curing time before applying ε ap. x , ty : curing time before applying ε ap. y , λ: wavelength of wrinkled structure, ζ: amplitude of wrinkled structure.
Loading direction of tensile experiments.
Critical Mises stress σ mises,C, maximum principal stress σ 1max,C and strain ε 1max,C at fracture.
Size of winkle structures in parametric study; B: film thickness, λ rib: wavelength of rib, ζ rib: amplitude of rib.
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