XRD patterns for the undoped, LZO and SLZO film samples.
SEM images of the films (a) ZnO, (b) LZO, (c) SLZO1, (d) SLZO2, (e) SLZO3, (f) SLZO4, and (g) SLZO5, respectively.
TEM images and the corresponding SAED patterns for the (a) LZO and (b) SLZO1 nanoparticles, respectively.
Transmittance spectra (a) and band gap (b) of the undoped, LZO and SLZO films.
Plots of (a) I–V and (b) resistivity for the undoped, LZO and SLZO films. The inset of (b) shows the energy band structure of the GaIn/ZnO interface before and after Ag-Li codoping.
(a) The (3 × 3 × 2) ZnO supercell used for calculations with a Li atom placed in an octahedral interstitial site and a Ag atom substituting the nearest neighbor zinc site, respectively. The total and partial DOS are also calculated for the (b) ZnO, (c) LZO, and (d) SLZO samples, respectively. The Fermi level is set to zero.
Grain size, lattice parameters, and Eg for the undoped, LZO and SLZO samples.
The diffraction plane and d-spacing of the LZO and SLZO1films (Δd= dSAMP LE − dJCPDS εd = 0.010 Å (Ref. 38 ), Sd = Δd/εd , = ΣSd /6).
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