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Mn substitution-modified polar phase in the Bi1−xNdxFeO3 multiferroics
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Observed, calculated, and difference X-ray diffraction patterns obtained for the BiNdFeMnO ( = 0.1 (a),  = 0.15 (b), and  = 0.2 (c)) compounds at room temperature. The antiferroelectric phase of the phase-separated  = 0.2 sample was described in the approximation of commensurate orthorhombic structure with the space group (see Refs. for more details). Inset shows backscattered electron image of the BiNdFeMnO ceramics.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Atomic arrangement in the “ ” (a) and “3” (b) structures along the axis coincident with one of the ⟨100⟩ directions of the parent cubic perovskite cell. Representation of the rhombohedral structure is based on the refined parameters obtained for the BiNdFeMnO compound (Table I ).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Concentrational dependences of the unit cell volume (black squares), polarization (blue circles) and polar displacements of the O (white bars) and ⟨Fe/Mn⟩ (red bars) ions for the single-phase rhombohedral BiNdFeMnO ( ≤ 0.15) compounds at room temperature.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Scanning probe microscopy measurements of the BiNdFeMnO ceramics: topography (a), electric-field-induced PFM contrast after poling with  = 60 V (dark spot) and  = −60 V (bright spots), and local piezoresponse hysteresis loops obtained from the surface of two different grains (c).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Field dependences of the magnetization obtained for the BiNdFeMnO compounds at room temperature.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Compositional dependence of the remanent/spontaneous magnetization for the rhombohedral (close symbols)/orthorhombic (open symbols) compounds of the BiNdFeMnO ( ≤ 0.3) system at room temperature. The color-marked regions composing the eye-guide curve separate the AF polar phase (red dotted line), wF nonpolar phase (blue solid line), and intermediate polar phase in which the change of the dominant magnetic state occurs (green dashed line). Straight line indicates the spontaneous magnetization expected for the BiNdFeMnO compounds upon removal of the cycloidal modulation.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Structural parameters of the BiNdFeMnO compound at room temperature (space group 3).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Mn substitution-modified polar phase in the Bi1−xNdxFeO3 multiferroics