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Electrical conduction in polyethylene: The role of positive charge and the formation of positive packets
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10.1063/1.4810857
/content/aip/journal/jap/113/22/10.1063/1.4810857
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/22/10.1063/1.4810857
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

The basic morphology of semi-crystalline PE.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The orthorhombic unit cell of the crystalline phase of polyethylene showing electrons in (a) valence band states concentrated about C-C and C-H bonds and (b) conduction band states concentrated chains.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Positive polaron transport. (a) Positive hole conductive elements consisting of crystallites C, interphases I and I and an intervening amorphous phase A. (b) Positive polaron energies, W, in the crystalline phase and W in the two interphases, measured with respect to the valence band edge V B. The hole path is shown as .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The energy bridge V(x) for tunnelling through the amorphous phase R between states I and I (Fig. 3 ) showing (a) the bridge arising from the discrete states in the amorphous phase and (b) the approximate bridge of mean energy V. The donor and acceptor hole states D and A at each end of the bridge (corresponding to sites I and I) are shown for a hole transition in the presence of a field. They are shown as polaronic centres of radii R.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Hole mobility (—) and velocity v (- - -) as functions of the field F. The parameters used in Eq. (8) are λ = 0.8 eV, V = 0.8 eV, R = 40 Å, E = 1 eV, T = 300 K.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The effect on mobility of changing parameters of the characteristic shown in Fig. 5 . (a) λ/eV: (1) 0.7, (2) 0.8, (3) 0.9. (b) R/Å: (1) 35, (2).40, (3) 45. (c) V/eV: (1) 0.7, (2) 0.8, (3) 0.9. (d) E/eV: (1) 0.9, (2) 1.0, (3) 1.1.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The hole mobility (a) at various temperatures and (b) as thermal activation plots at various fields.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(—) the field F(d,t) at the charge front and (- - -) the anode field F(0,t) up to the transit time when the charge front reaches the cathode for (a) ρ = 10 C m and (b) ρ = 100 C m. The electrode spacing is 200 m and the applied fields F/10 V m are indicated.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Charge front distance-time plots x(t) for ρ (a) 10 C m and (b) 100 C m. The electrode spacing is 200 m and the applied fields F/10 V m are indicated.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

The charge distributions associated with the initial hole transient. The times in seconds since initiation are indicated. Note how the charge front is weakened or strengthened depending on ρ and F. These parameters determine whether the field at the front is lower or higher than that for the peak velocity.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Packet propagation. A Gaussian charge packet is generated and moves out from the anode. At t = 0, it is assumed to be centred at a distance 5 m from the anode with a half-width of 2 m and under an applied field F propagates as shown. Note how an increase of packet charge density from 10 to 100 C m changes the characteristics of the propagating packet considerably.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Steady state current density J as a function of field F and temperature T K. Charge density ρ (—) 100 and (- - -) 10 C m.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/113/22/10.1063/1.4810857
2013-06-14
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Electrical conduction in polyethylene: The role of positive charge and the formation of positive packets
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/22/10.1063/1.4810857
10.1063/1.4810857
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