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Applications of high throughput (combinatorial) methodologies to electronic, magnetic, optical, and energy-related materials
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10.1063/1.4803530
/content/aip/journal/jap/113/23/10.1063/1.4803530
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/23/10.1063/1.4803530
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Increasing utilization of different elements in the silicon microelectronics industry, as a function of time. Reproduced with permission from IBM Corporation.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Cross section of an integrated circuit transistor device, showing the gate stack (gate metal electrode plus gate dielectric), the source and drain regions, and the channel (in between the source and drain).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Figure of merit (FOM) of ZrSnTiO dielectric thin films: (a) FOM as a function of position on the 6.2× 6.5 cm substrate, obtained by multiplying the capacitance and voltage measured at each point, and normalizing to the capacitor area. The location of the Zr, Ti, and Sn guns is indicated schematically with respect to the position of the substrate; (b) same data mapped onto a conventional ternary composition diagram. Reprinted by permission from R.B. van Dover , Nature , 162 (1998). Copyright 1998 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Ternary composition spread film grown on a Si(100) substrate. The equilateral triangle in the center corresponds to the ternary phase diagram and the three isosceles regions around it correspond to three binary phase diagrams. Reproduced with permission from K. Hasegawa , Appl. Surf. Sci. , 229 (2004). Copyright 2004 Elsevier BV.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Schematic illustration of the microwave microscope for dielectric property mapping, and a measured example for a (ZrO)(YO)(AlO) combinatorial library sample. Reproduced withpermission from T. Chikyow , IEEE Cat. No. 06EX1294 (2006). Copyright 2006 IEEE.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Schematic illustration of the ternary and binary composition spread method with sample rotation and moving mask system, first employed by Fukumura Here, the PLD deposition method is shown as an example, but ion beam sputtering can also be used. Reproduced with permission from T. Chikyow , IEEE Cat. No. 06EX1294 (2006). Copyright 2006 IEEE. (b) SCHEMATIC showing the synthesis of a combinatorial “library” of the binary system A-B. A thin wedge (wedge height ∼0.5 nm) of A is deposited, and the substrate is rotated 180°. A complementary wedge of B is then deposited. This is repeated “N” times, until the desired film thickness is achieved. If the substrate is rotated 120° instead, a ternary (shown from above in the lower left), rather than a binary alloy system may be synthesized. Reproduced with permission from M. L. Green , Microelectron. Eng. , 2209 (2007). Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Bubble plot reconstruction of the crystal phase diagram for the CeO–AlO–HfO CCS thin film on a Si(001)substrate. The various phases are numbered. The lower figure is an HEXRD diffraction image taken from the polycrystalline CeO part of the composition spread. Reprinted with permission from D. A. Kukuruznyak , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 071916 (2007). Copyright 2007 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Comparison of simulated ((9a) and (9b)) and experimentally determined ((9c) and (9d)) composition maps for PLD libraries in the Hf-Al-YO system. The library in (9a) was deposited at P = 1.33 Pa, and the library in (9b) at P = 13.3 Pa. Reproduced with permission from P. K. Schenck , Appl. Surf. Sci. , 781 (2007). Copyright 2004 Elsevier BV.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) Photograph and (b) predicted thickness map for a PLD Hf-Al-YO library film deposited with P = 13.3 Pa. Reprinted with permission from N. D. Bassim , Rev. Sci. Instrum. , 072203 (2007). Copyright 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Photographs of four HfO–TiO–YO library films, each deposited at a different temperature. Those library films deposited at T ≥ 400 °C show a clear boundary separating the TiO-rich region from the HfO–YO region. Reprinted with permission from J. L. Klamo , J. Appl. Phys. , 054101 (2010). Copyright 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Ternary diagram showing the predicted compositional coverage (small points) of the 500 °C HfO–TiO–YO library film, and the measured relative dielectric constant (filled colored points) extracted from the C-V characteristics of the as-deposited film. The overlaid line represents the approximate location of the crystalline-amorphous boundary. Reprinted with permission from J. L. Klamo , J. Appl. Phys. , 054101 (2010). Copyright 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Al concentration dependence of (a) valence-band offset and (b) band gap by annealing samples at 400, 600, and 800 °C. The dashed lines indicate (a) linear and (b) parabolic fitting results. Reprinted with permission from S. Toyoda , J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1), 16–19 (2010). Copyright 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(a) Map of the flatband voltage shift extracted from the C-V characteristics at 1 kHz across the Ni–Ti–Pt library, and (b) map of the extracted work functions across the library. Round symbols in the three corners denote literature values. Reprinted with permission from K. S. Chang , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 142108 (2006). Copyright 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Compositional calibration of a TaN-AlN library sample achieved by performing RBS analysis on a wedge profiled, moving shutter-deposited TaN (for example) film. Reproduced with permission from M. L. Green , Microelectron. Eng. , 2209 (2007). Copyright 2007 Elsevier BV.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

At C = 0%, 30%, and 100%, the values in V are typical of metal/high-κ interfaces, i.e., much narrower V controllability on high-κ films than work function values. However, at C = 30%, a wide controllability of 0.58 V has been achieved on HfiSiON after 500 °C due to Mo segregation at the interface. Modification of the microstructure due to carbon incorporation plays a key role. Reproduced with permission from 2007 IEEE Electron Devices Meeting - IEDM , 345. Copyright 2007 IEEE.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Slope factor S (derivative of V as a function of work function), as a function of Pt-W composition after a 450 °C forming gas anneal followed by a 350 °C oxidizing gas anneal. Note that the S factor of LaO overlaps that of HfO except for an anomalous increase in the range 0.7 < Pt < 1. Reproduced with permission from T. Chikyow , IEEE Cat. No. 06EX1294 (2006). Copyright 2006 IEEE.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

(a) Composition map of the TaAlN composition spread, as determined by WDS. The dimension of the library is 15 mm × 15 mm. Each dot represents a capacitor, and (b) plot of the composition variation across the sample. A wide composition range, x = 0.05 to 0.85, was achieved. Reproduced with permission from K. S. Chang , IEEE Trans. Electron Devices , 2641 (2008). Copyright 2008 IEEE.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Plot of the extracted work functions (Φm) for the TaAlN composition spreads. Φm was extracted as a function of Al content after a forming gas anneal (500 °C), and 900 °C and 1000 °C rapid thermal anneals. After the 1000 °C anneal, for x < 0.27, Φm could not be mapped due to degradation of the capacitors. Reproduced with permission from K. S. Chang , IEEE Trans. Electron Devices , 2641 (2008). Copyright 2008 IEEE.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Ta–C–N library film composition data plotted in ternary composition space (the solid and dashed black line). Ta(C,N) and Ta(C,N) equilibrium phase regions are also shown. Reprinted with permission from K. S. Chang , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 192114 (2010). Copyright 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

Dielectric loss mapping of doped BaTiO films measured by scanning microwave microscopy. The region defined by the red box are compositions doped with W. The loss is low in general in this region. Reprinted with permission from H. Chang , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 2185 (1998). Copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

Normalized dielectric constant dispersion vs. composition on a library sample, as measured by microwave microscope. The dispersion is defined as (dielectric constant at 0.95 GHz—dielectric constant at 4.95 GHz)/dielectric constant at 0.95 GHz. The dispersion is largest in the range x = 0.2–0.4. Reprinted with permission from K. S. Chang , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 4411 (2001). Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

Discovery of a lead free morphotropic phase boundary. The piezoelectric coefficient, d, is mapped on a BiSmFeO composition spread. A strong peak is observed at x = 0.14. Reprinted with permission from S. Fujino , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 202904 (2008). Copyright 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

(a) Ferroelectric and structural properties of a BiFeO-Bi(FeSc)O-(BiSm)FeO pseudoternary composition spread. Ferroelectric hysteresis loops measured at each spot are plotted. The red line marks the MPB, where the square hysteresis transitions into double hysteresis loops. The dotted line is where the hysteresis loops become square shaped, indicating that the films are non-leaky, and (b) ferroelectric and structural properties of a BiFeO-Bi(FeSc)O-(BiSm)FeO pseudoternary composition spread. Normalized intensity of the ¼{011} superstructure spot, corresponding to the occurrence of an antiferroelectric secondary phase, is plotted as a function of position. The dotted line is the same composition line as the dotted line in Fig. 23(a) , indicating that the presence of the antiferroelectric phase plays a role in controlling the leakage conduction in the films. Reproduced with permission from D. Kan , Integr. Ferroelectr. , 116 (2009). Copyright 2009 Taylor and Frances, Inc.

Image of FIG. 24.
FIG. 24.

Bulk composition spread. XRD patterns near the 111 reflections as a function of electric field amplitude. (a) La-rich region, (b) co-doped La/Fe region, and (c) Fe-rich region of (LaFe)PbZrTiO. Vertical scale is linear intensity. Bottom right shows a photograph of the sample with the positions of the data points indicated. Reprinted with permission from J.L. Jones , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 152904 (2008). Copyright 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 25.
FIG. 25.

Multiferroic properties of a (CoFeO)(PbTiO) CCS library as a function of average percentage of PbTiO. Remnant magnetization was measured by scanning SQUID microscopy and high dielectric constant region was mapped by microwave microscopy. Region in the middle was found to display coexisting magnetic-ferroelectric properties (replotted from data in Murakami ). Reprinted with permission from Murakami , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 112901 (2005). Copyright 2005 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 26.
FIG. 26.

SEM images of the top view of the film made from the single target andthe composition spread samples of BiFeO (BFO)-CoFeO (CFO) (1–5). As average composition ratio of BFO and CFO is varied, surface morphology is seen to change continuously. Reprinted with permission from N. M. Aimon , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 092901 (2012). Copyright 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 27.
FIG. 27.

Schematic for fabrication of ternary composition spreads using a set of shadow masks. The mechanism consists of three changeable targets, a fixed substrate, and a rotating mask system placed between them. The mask has three patterns, A, B, and C. The patterns A and B are used for ternary composition spread deposition, and the pattern C is for binary composition spread deposition. The y axis is along the radial direction of the mask rotation. Reproduced with permission from Y. Yamamoto , Appl. Surf. Sci. , 9 (2004). Copyright 2004 Elsevier BV.

Image of FIG. 28.
FIG. 28.

Structural-magnetic-electronic properties of a LaSrMnO CCS library as a function of x. (a) A concurrent XRD spectra (θ/2θ scan) at RT. The perpendicular axis represents the 2θ angle. The colored contour lines denote logarithmic intensity of the XRD peak. The scale bar denotes length on the film along the x axis. (b) The out of plane lattice constants calculated from (a) (blue curve). (c) The strength of the out of plane magnetic field |ΔBz| measured with scanning SQUID microscope at 3 K. (d) The contour map of infrared reflectivity at 293 K and (e) at 5 K. Color bars denote magnitude of the reflectivity. Reprinted with permission from T. Fukumura , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 3426 (2000). Copyright 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 29.
FIG. 29.

Electronic and magnetic transitions in the LaCaMnO pseudo-binary system studied using SEMP and scanning SQUID microscope: (a) a RT charge-coupled device (CCD) photograph of the continuous LaCaMnO thin film taken under white light and a magnetic phase diagram of the system determined from bulk single crystals (the various states are: paramagnetic insulator (PI), ferromagnetic insulator (FI), ferromagnetic metal (FM), charge-ordered insulator (COI), and antiferromagnetic insulator (AFI)); (b) SEMP line-scan profiles of microwave loss Δ1/Q (related to conductivity) and relative frequency shift Δf/f (measurement performed at RT); (c) scanning SQUID line profile obtained at 3 K (the oscillation indicates magnetic domains); and (d) scanning SQUID images taken at 7 K at four different composition regions showing the magnetic domains and the transition from strong to weak magnetization. Reproduced with permission from Y. K. Yoo , Phys. Rev. B (22), 224421 (2001). Copyright 2001 American Physical Society.

Image of FIG. 30.
FIG. 30.

Schematic showing how a magnetic phase diagram is constructed using magneto-optic imaging using an indicator film technique). The length and location of dark lines at different temperatures indicate a magnetic phase region on a composition-temperature diagram. Reproduced with permission from M. J. Turchinskaya , J. Mater. Res. , 2546 (2004). Copyright 2004 Materials Research Society.

Image of FIG. 31.
FIG. 31.

Constructed magnetic phase diagram of the La CaMnO composition spread on a SrTiO substrate). The experimental points (diamonds) are superimposed on the bulk phase diagram. PM, FM, NM, AF, CAF, CO, and FI refer to paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, non-magnetic, antiferromagnetic, canted antiferromagnetic, charge ordered, and ferromagnetic insulating states, respectively.

Image of FIG. 32.
FIG. 32.

Schematic illustration of two methods for fabricating combinatorial thin films: (a) co-sputtering from a three component sputtering target to map phase diagrams. Reproduced with permission from J. J. Hanak, J. Mater. Sci. , 964 (1970). Copyright 1970 Springer; and (b) co-evaporation system using electron beam vapor deposition for mapping a ternary phase diagram. Reprinted with permission from K. Kennedy , J. Appl. Phys. , 3808 (1965). Copyright 1965 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 33.
FIG. 33.

Mapping of properties of a Fe-Ni-Co combinatorial thin film library: (a) the Fe-Ni-Co phase diagram obtained from distribution of structural phases deduced from X-ray microdiffraction peaks of fcc, bcc, and “Co cubic” phases, and (b) mapping of magnetic property using scanning magneto-optical Kerr effect measurement. The Kerr rotation angle measured at +/− 50 Oe applied field is plotted. The figure at left shows a typical hysteresis loop. Reproduced with permission from Y. K. Yoo , Intermetallics , 241 (2006). Copyright 2006 Elsevier BV. (c) Saturation induction mapped for the Fe-Ni-Co ternary phase diagram using the traditional individual alloys for comparison. Reproduced with permission from R. M. Bozorth, (Wiley-IEEE Press, New Jersey, 1993). Copyright 1993 Wiley-IEEE Press.

Image of FIG. 34.
FIG. 34.

Exploration of magnetic SMAs in the Ni-Mn-Ga ternary system. (a) RT mapping of remnant magnetization of the Ni-Mn-Ga system. (The region inside the triangular shaped curve is the compositional region mapped on a CCS library film; the circle marks the compositions near the NiMnGa Heusler composition); (b) superimposed functional phase diagram deduced from magnetic mapping and SMA mapping (the shaded region has the compositions with average electron/atom ratio 7.3–7.8; the dotted line surrounds the region of SMAs; in the ferromagnetic region, the red area has the highest magnetization); (c) 800 °C isothermal section of the Ni-Mn-Ga ternary system; (d) Martensitic transformation temperature plotted against RT saturation magnetization (Each data point correspond to a composition on the spread wafer. The line is a linear fit to the data). Reprinted (Figs. 34(a) , 34(b) , and 34(d) ) with permission from I. Takeuchi , Nature Mater. , 180 (2003). Copyright 2003 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Image of FIG. 35.
FIG. 35.

RT magnetic phase diagram of a 25 nm thick Co-Mn-Ge phase diagram sample grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Image of differential MOKE intensity measured at +/− 5 Oe, which corresponds to the saturated states of the system. Reproduced with permission from F. Tsui and P. A. Ryan, Appl. Surf. Sci. , 333 (2002). Copyright 2002 Elsevier BV.

Image of FIG. 36.
FIG. 36.

Synthesis schemes of CCS libraries. Cross-sectional schematic views of (a) full binary sample (CoMn)Si with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and (b) partial binary sample with 0.3 ≤ x ≤ 1. (c) Partial ternary sample and (d) composition range of the partial ternary sample (shaded region) within the full ternary phase diagram. The trilayers of Si-Co-Mn submonolayer wedges and “partial” wedges are typically repeated 200 times. Reprinted with permission from L. He , J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B , 03C124 (2011). Copyright 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 37.
FIG. 37.

Application of MFM to map magnetic domains to obtain Curie temperature—composition relationship for the Co-Cr-Mo ternary system: (a) schematic of a Co-Cr-Mo-Nb-Ni diffusion multiple with the Co-Cr-Mo tri-junction region highlighted; (b) MFM images superimposed on a backscattered electron image of the Co-Cr-Mo tri-junction; and (c) the 24 °C iso-Curie temperature compositions of the fcc phase in the Co-Cr-Mo ternary system obtained by tracing the boundary (dotted line in (b)) between the domain/non-domain region with EPMA. Reproduced with permission from J. C. Zhao, Prog. Mater. Sci. , 557 (2006). Copyright 2006 Pergamon.

Image of FIG. 38.
FIG. 38.

SEMPA (scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis) image of a thickness wedge sample, showing the quasiperiodic oscillations of the exchange coupling between two Fe films separated by a Cr film of 0–15 nm. The light and dark contrast represents regions in which the magnetization of the top Fe layer is aligned or antialigned with that of the bottom layer. Reproduced with permission from J. Unguris , Phys. Rev. Lett. , 140 (1991). Copyright 1991 American Physical Society.

Image of FIG. 39.
FIG. 39.

(a) Schematic of the library for investigating the coupling behavior of hard/soft bilayers (left), (b) magnetic hysteresis loops (a.u.) for different soft layer thicknesses (t) and compositions on a CoPt (H = 0.64 T) hard layer measured on a single library, and (c) the coupling length λ, experimentally determined from the soft layer thickness at which the transition between one phase-like behavior and two-phase-like behavior takes place. Reproduced with permission from A. J. Zambano , Phys. Rev. B , 144429 (2007). Copyright 2007 American Physical Society.

Image of FIG. 40.
FIG. 40.

Magnetostrictive coefficient measured from Fe-Ga thin-film composition spread plotted against values from bulk studies as a function of Ga content. The compositional trend agrees well with bulk values. Reprinted with permission from J. R. Hattrick-Simpers , Appl. Phys. Lett. (10), 102507 (2008). Copyright 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 41.
FIG. 41.

A 128-member matrix array cuprate superconductor library, prior to sintering. Each site is 1 mm by 2 mm; the color of each is the natural color of reflected light from a white light source. The amorphous precursor layers are deposited using a series of shadow masks. Reproduced with permission from X. D. Xiang , Science , 1738 (1995). Copyright 1995 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Image of FIG. 42.
FIG. 42.

The 196 pin layout that makes electrical contact to a 49 sample thin film library for simultaneous four terminal resistivity measurements. The shortest distance between pins is 4.64 mm. Reprinted with permission from K. C. Hewitt , Rev. Sci. Instrum. , 093906 (2005). Copyright 2005 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 43.
FIG. 43.

(a) Experimental and simulated RBS spectra for a VO film (from VO target in vacuum): x = 2.99, thickness = 83 nm; (inset) RBS schematic, (b) photograph of VO library with indicated values of oxygen partial pressure during deposition, and (c) oxygen stoichiometry in the library as a function of background pressure of oxygen. Reproduced with permission from N. D. Bassim , Appl. Surf. Sci. , 785 (2007). Copyright 2007 Elsevier BV.

Image of FIG. 44.
FIG. 44.

Photoluminescence images of a series of phosphor libraries processed under different conditions with nominal compositions indicated. (a) La(or GdF)(Sr)AlO:Eu where 0.375 ≤ m ≤ 1, 0.25 ≤ n ≤ 0.4, 1.88 ≤ y ≤ 12% in atomic ratio, annealed at 1150 °C; (b) same as (a) but annealed at 1400 °C; (c) La(or GdF)AlO:Tb (Ce ); Eu where 0.32 ≤ m ≤ 1, 1.29 ≤ y ≤ 6, 0.65 ≤ z ≤ 4%, 1.29 ≤ h ≤ 8% annealed at 1150 °C; (d) same as (c), but annealed at 1400 °C; (e) La(or GdF)(Sr)AlO:Eu where 0.178 ≤ m ≤ 0.714, 0.17 ≤ n ≤ 0.4, 0.75 ≤ y ≤ 16.7% annealed at 1150 °C. Each substrate is 1 in. square. The images are taken with UV lamp excitation. Reprinted with permission from X. D. Sun , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 3353 (1997). Copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 45.
FIG. 45.

Masks for generating a quaternary library. Reproduced with permission from J. S. Wang , Science , 1712 (1998). Copyright 1998 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Image of FIG. 46.
FIG. 46.

Schematic of a scanning multihead inkjet delivery system for solution deposition of optical material libraries. The system is integrated from drop-on-demand single nozzle piezoelectric inkjets (see Ref. ). Reproduced with permission from T. X. Sun, in , edited by X. D. Xiang and I. Takeuchi (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003), pp. 141–176.

Image of FIG. 47.
FIG. 47.

Image of UV excited (254 nm) photoluminescence from a library. The blue-white emission in the upper right corner is from SrCeO. Reproduced with permission from E. Danielson , Science , 837 (1998). Copyright 1998 American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Image of FIG. 48.
FIG. 48.

Schematic diagram of a combinatorial laser molecular beam epitaxy deposition system. Reproduced with permission from Y. Matsumoto , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 , L603 (1999). Copyright 1999 The Japan Society for Applied Physics.

Image of FIG. 49.
FIG. 49.

X-ray diffraction of a MgZnO composition spread in the 2θ range of 30° to 50°. The vertical scale is arbitrary, but shows the relative intensity of the peak at each 2θ value at a fixed composition. The upper left shows the schematic of the spread with the lattice constants of the end compositions. Reprinted with permission from I. Takeuchi , J. Appl. Phys. , 3840 (2004). Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 50.
FIG. 50.

Comparison of conductivity (a), carrier concentration (b), and mobility as measured by combinatorial tools (closed symbols) and discrete Hall measurements (open symbols). A broad maximum in conductivity and mobility is observed in the region determined to be amorphous by XRD. Reproduced with permission from M. P. Taylor , Meas. Sci. Technol. , 90 (2005). Copyright 2005 Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 51.
FIG. 51.

Conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility measured as a function of Ti content in InO films. The carrier concentration varies linearly over a range of 2 to 4 at. % Ti, with the conductivity peaking in this region. Reprinted with permission from M. van Hest , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 032111 (2005). Copyright 2005 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 52.
FIG. 52.

Images of F doped SnO samples deposited by APCVD on (a) a glass substrate and (b) as a series of solar cells. Reproduced with permission from U. Dagkaldiran , Mater. Sci. Eng., B. , 6 (2009). Copyright 2009 Elsevier S.A.

Image of FIG. 53.
FIG. 53.

Schematic of high spatial resolution reflectance measurement system. Reproduced with permission from Q. Wang , Appl. Surf. Sci. , 271 (2002). Copyright 2002 Elsevier BV.

Image of FIG. 54.
FIG. 54.

Compositional variation of conductivity in ZnO samples doped with Ga at different deposition temperatures. Reproduced with permission from C. W. Gorrie , (2008), Vol. 1–4, p. 635. Copyright 2008 IEEE.

Image of FIG. 55.
FIG. 55.

Resistivity and film thickness as a function of position on a ZnO–GaO CCS library. Reproduced with permission from K. Jung , Appl. Surf. Sci. , 6219 (2010). Copyright 2010 Elsevier BV.

Image of FIG. 56.
FIG. 56.

Map of amorphization (writing) time on a Ge-Sb-Te CCS film library. Reproduced with permission from S. Kyrsta , Thin Solid Films , 379 (2001). Copyright 2001 Elsevier S.A.

Image of FIG. 57.
FIG. 57.

Schematic diagram of a multichannel power factor measurement system for thermoelectric materials. Reproduced with permission from H.Minami , Appl. Surf. Sci. , 442 (2002). Copyright 2002 Elsevier BV.

Image of FIG. 58.
FIG. 58.

Schematic diagram of measurement probe to measure electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. Reprinted with permission from M. Otani , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 132102 (2007). Copyright 2007 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 59.
FIG. 59.

(a) Electrical conductivity, (b) Seebeck coefficient, and (c) power factor of the library film (Ca SrLa)CoO, where x and y vary between 0 and approximately 0.35. Reprinted with permission from M. Otani , Appl. Phys. Lett. , 132102 (2007). Copyright 2007 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 60.
FIG. 60.

Graph of Seebeck coefficients from the La-Ni-O library heated at 1073 K for 10 h in air. Reproduced with permission from R. Funahashi , Appl. Surf. Sci. , 44 (2004). Copyright 2004 Elsevier BV.

Image of FIG. 61.
FIG. 61.

Compositional dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at different temperatures for the Mg-Si-Ge library. (a-d) and (1-4) refer to various compositional points on the library film. Reproduced with permission from M. Watanabe , J. Comb. Chem. , 175 (2008). Copyright 2008 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 62.
FIG. 62.

The temperature dependence of resistivity (a) and Seebeck coefficient (b) of Ni-Cu alloys. Reproduced with permission from A. Yamamoto , Thermoelectric Power Generation, 273–278 (2008). Copyright 2008 Cambridge University Press.

Image of FIG. 63.
FIG. 63.

Schematic diagram of the Ni–Cr–Pd–Pt–Rh–Ru diffusion multiple. The five thick bars mark locations where the composition and thermal conductivity profiles were acquired. Reproduced with permission from X. Zheng , Acta Mater. , 5177 (2007). Copyright 2007 Pergamon.

Image of FIG. 64.
FIG. 64.

(a) Composition dependence of the thermal conductivity at room temperature for Ni(Cr), Ni(Pd), Ni(Pt), Ni(Rh), and Ni(Ru) solid solutions. (b) Composition dependence of the thermal conductivity for solute concentrations between 0.1 and 10 at. % plotted on a log–log scale. Open triangles, solid diamonds, open squares, dotted triangles, and solid circles are data for solutes of Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru, and Cr, respectively. Open circles are for earlier non-combinatorial data reported for Ni(Cr) alloys (see Ref. ). Reproduced with permission from X. Zheng , Acta Mater. , 5177 (2007). Copyright 2007 Pergamon.

Image of FIG. 65.
FIG. 65.

Example of use of (a) fluorescence libraries. Reproduced with permission from E. Reddington , Science , 1735 (1998). Copyright 1998 American Association for the Advancement of Science. (b) Apparatus for parallel electrochemical measurements to screen battery materials. Reproduced with permission from M. D. Fleischauer , J. Electrochem. Soc. , A1465 (2003). Copyright 2003 The Electrochemical Society, Inc.

Image of FIG. 66.
FIG. 66.

Comparison of calculated range over which different cations can be oxidized by Li removal to voltages of known oxides. Reproduced with permission from G. Ceder, MRS Bull. , 693(2010). Copyright 2010 Materials Research Society.

Image of FIG. 67.
FIG. 67.

Schematic of orbital sputtering system. Reproduced with permission from M. D. Fleischauer and J. R. Dahn, J. Electrochem. Soc. , A1216 (2004). Copyright 2004 The Electrochemical Society.

Image of FIG. 68.
FIG. 68.

Roadmap to the selection of the Sn–Co–C system as the best choice among Sn–M–C systems for negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. Reproduced with permission from A. D. W. Todd , J. Electrochem. Soc. , A597 (2007). Copyright 2007 The Electrochemical Society.

Image of FIG. 69.
FIG. 69.

DFT calculated enthalpies of formation for a large number of possible one step hydrogen release reactions. The reactions that fall within the bounds of the dotted lines were identified as being promising enough to merit experimental investigation. Reproduced with permission from S. V. Alapati , J. Phys. Chem. C , 1584 (2007). Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 70.
FIG. 70.

Calculated hydrogen release (in wt. %) across the Li–Mg–N–H system as a function of temperature. Each figure corresponds to a specific temperature range (a) T < 30 K, (b) 130 K < T, 426 K, (c) 426 K < T < 458 K, (d) 458 K < T < 606 K, (e) 606 K < T < 734 K, and (f) 743 K < T < 780 K. Reproduced with permission from C. Wolverton , J. Phys. Condens. Matter , 064228 (2008). Copyright 2008 Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 71.
FIG. 71.

Cartoon of a typical IR emissivity measurement system for thin film hydride characterization. Reprinted with permission from C. H. Olk , J. Appl. Phys. , 720 (2003). Copyright 2003 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 72.
FIG. 72.

Representative IR emissivity data from a Mg-Ni composition spread. Reprinted with permission from C. H. Olk , J. Appl. Phys. , 720 (2003). Copyright 2003 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 73.
FIG. 73.

Representative data taken via hydrogenography (a) an image of a backlit combinatorial sample is obtained at a set temperature and pressure, (b) the transmission of each point is mapped to the ternary phase diagram, (c) the plateau pressure of each composition is evaluated as a function of temperature, and (d) the enthalpy is plotted on the phase diagram. Reproduced with permission from R. Gremaud , Adv. Mater. , 2813 (2007). Copyright 2007 Wiley—VCH Verlag Gmbh & Co.

Image of FIG. 74.
FIG. 74.

Weight% hydrogen desorbed from different mixtures of LiNH–LiBH–MgH as a function of cycle and temperature. (a) First cycle at 220 °C, (b) second cycle at 285 °C, and (c) fourth cycle 350 °C. Reproduced with permission from G. J. Lewis , J. Alloys Compd. , 355 (2007). Copyright 2007 Elsevier BV.

Image of FIG. 75.
FIG. 75.

Schematic of a single fuel cell (see Ref. ). Reproduced with permission from S. Eccarius , J. Power Sources , 723 (2008). Copyright 2008 Elsevier S.A.

Image of FIG. 76.
FIG. 76.

Automated system for electrosynthesis. (a) Rapid serial deposition system; here, a moving arm is used to sequentially address each well, (b) parallel deposition system; here an array of counter electrodes are used to simultaneously electrodeposit each well. Reproduced with permission from B. Sung-Hyeon , Meas. Sci. Technol. , 54 (2005). Copyright 2005 Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 77.
FIG. 77.

Schematic of an array fuel cell with common counter electrode and array working electrode. Reproduced with permission from E. S. Smotkin and R. R. Diaz-Morales, Ann. Rev. Mater. Res. , 557 (2003). Copyright 2003 Annual Reviews.

Image of FIG. 78.
FIG. 78.

(a) Plot comparing the current density of a Ni-Zr-Pt-Ru catalyst as a function of temperature for a catalyst composition discovered by Whitacre. (b) Same data normalized to mole fraction Pt per unit area. Reproduced with permission from J. F. Whitacre , J. Electrochem. Soc. , A1780 (2005). Copyright 2005 The Electrochemical Society, Inc.

Image of FIG. 79.
FIG. 79.

(a) Calculated ternary diagram of Ni-Fe-Cr system at 875 °C and (b) measured ternary diagram from a CCS library film. Reproduced with permission from A. Rar , Meas. Sci. Technol. , 46 (2005). Copyright 2005 Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 80.
FIG. 80.

Thermal hysteresis (measured by resistive transitions) vs. middle eigenvalues (determined from lattice constants) for different Ni-Ti-X-Y systems shows that making the middle eigenvalue go to 1 (by satisfying lattice constant conditions set by the non-linear theory of martensite) reduces the thermal hysteresis of martensitic transformation. Each data point corresponds to a different composition. Reproduced with permission from R. Zarnetta , Adv. Funct. Mater. , 1917 (2010). Copyright 2010 Wiley—VCH Verlag Gmbh & Co.

Image of FIG. 81.
FIG. 81.

(a) Rapid cluster analysis of diffraction spectra taken from a Ni-Ti-Cu composition spread. Different colors indicate spectra with similar patterns reflecting the different structural regions. Reproduced with permission from R. Zarnetta , Intermetallics , 98 (2012). Copyright 2012 Elsevier BV. (b) High-temperature phase diagram of Ni-Ti-Cu obtained using bulk samples. The clear resemblance between (a) and (b) attest to the validity of the composition spread and the cluster analysis technique for quick delineation of structural phase distributions across large compositional ranges (see Ref. ). Reproduced with permission from F. J. J. Vanloo , J. Less-Common Met. , 111 (1978). Copyright 1978 Elsevier Publishing Co.

Image of FIG. 82.
FIG. 82.

Schematic of the parallel nano-scanning calorimeter (see Ref. ). Reproduced with permission from P. J. McCluskey , Acta Mater. , 5116 (2011). Copyright 2011 Pergamon.

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2013-06-17
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Applications of high throughput (combinatorial) methodologies to electronic, magnetic, optical, and energy-related materials
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/23/10.1063/1.4803530
10.1063/1.4803530
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