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Noise analysis of broadband active metamaterials with non-Foster loads
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10.1063/1.4811437
/content/aip/journal/jap/113/23/10.1063/1.4811437
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/23/10.1063/1.4811437
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Equivalent circuit of a loop and load in a system of coupled loaded loops. Summations indicate the coupling factors between the loop and the remaining loops.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Extracted parameters of effective medium comprising infinite loaded loops corresponding to different spacing. (a) Non-Foster loading medium, (b) passive loading medium.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Equivalent circuit of a single loop with non-Foster load. The non-Foster circuits are obtained as the output of a noiseless NIC network terminated in a parallel positive RLC load . The impedance looking into the NIC output would ideally be . Shaded components indicate Johnson-Nyquist noise sources.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The power spectral density (log-scale) of noise from a single non-Foster loaded loop, as compared to a passive structure with different types of loads. (a) Three-dimensional plots of the PSD of the active loop with the NIC load inductance changing from 0 nH to −50 nH while it varies from 0 nH to +50 nH for the positive RLC case, however having no impact on the positive case. (b)Two-dimensional plots of the PSDs under different loading conditions, the negative inductance is varied from the stable to unstable cases.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The PSD of the noise in one-dimensional infinitely periodic loop arrays with different spacings. The spacing is varied from 5 mm to 20 mm. (a) The active media consist of periodic axial non-Foster loaded loops, where each load is defined as a parallel-RLC circuit with , and (b) The passive media consist of loops where the loads are replaced by positive capacitances .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The PSD of the noise in multi-dimensional infinitely periodic loop arrays, as compared to the single unit case. The 1D arrays consist of periodic coaxial loops with periodicity of 10 mm in the direction, while the 2D arrays have additional coplanar periodicity (25 mm) in the direction. The addition of coplanar periodicity (25 mm) in the direction results in the 3D array case. (a) Active medium consists of non-Foster loaded loops. (b) Passive medium consists of loops where the loads are replaced by positive capacitances.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The PSD of the noise at the central element of a finite 1D loop array, as compared to the single unit and the infinite cases. The lattice spacing is 10 mm, and the number of elements varies from 11 to 21. (a) Active medium consists of non-Foster loaded loops. (b) Passive medium consists of loops where the loads are replaced by positive capacitances.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

A system using a single active loop to connect a source to a load . As discussed before, the active load is a non-Foster element generated from the NIC, and equivalent to a parallel negative RLC circuit (||||).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) The noise figure of the system consisting of a single non-Foster's loaded loop, as compared to the passive case. As proposed before, we take the same definitions for the loop and the loads, but vary the load inductance from to . (b) The contrast between the noise figure and the gain of the network for the actively loaded system with discrete load inductances , and .

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

A system using a 1D active loop array to connect a source and a load.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

The noise figure of one-dimensional non-Foster loaded loop arrays. (a) and (b) correspond, respectively, to different distances between neighboring loops and different load inductances.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/113/23/10.1063/1.4811437
2013-06-18
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Noise analysis of broadband active metamaterials with non-Foster loads
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/23/10.1063/1.4811437
10.1063/1.4811437
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