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Schematic diagram of the carrier transitions, energy levels/gaps, and the position x, which is the distance from the edge of the p-emitter layer. The solid arrows are the carrier generation rates, , and which represent the generation between the conduction band (CB) and the valence band (VB), between CB and IBi (ith intermediate band) and between VB and IBi, respectively. Similarly, dotted arrows are the carrier recombination rates, , and .
Energy band diagram and Fermi energy levels for (a) a 6-level IBSC and (b) a 3-level IBSC with Nd /NI of 0.5 in short circuit condition under 1 sun. Note that the Fermi energy levels of IB i are not depicted in (a) to avoid confusion.
Electron occupation of each IB, and the average value, for a 6-level IBSC under (a) 1 sun and (c) 1000 suns, and for a 3-level IBSC under (b) 1 sun and (d) 1000 suns in the case of Nd /NI of 0.5.
The average occupation of electrons in each IB for a 6-level IBSC under (a) 1 sun and (c) 1000 suns, and the occupation for a 3-level IBSC under (b) 1 sun and (d) 1000 suns for three values of Nd /NI under short circuit conditions.
Optical transition rates via IB1 for both a 6-level IBSC and a 3-level IBSC under 1 sun for various values of Nd /NI .
Optical transition rates via IB1 for both a 6-level IBSC and a 3-level IBSC under 1000 suns for various values of Nd /NI .
I-V characteristics for a 6-level IBSC and 3-level IBSC under 1 sun and 1000 suns. For comparison, the no-IB solar cell curve represents the I-V characteristic of a single p-n junction solar cell. The current density under 1000 suns is normalized by the sun concentration.
Conversion efficiencies of 6 - and 3-level IBSC depending on Nd /NI under (a) 1 sun and (b) 1000 suns. The dashed lines are the thermodynamic limit efficiencies obtained from a detailed balance limit calculation, and the dotted lines are the efficiencies of the single junction solar cell calculated from the device simulation.
Simulation parameters used in this paper.
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