XRD patterns in the 2θ range of 20°-80° of PSZST ceramics with different Sm contents. The inset shows the fine scanning XRD patterns of 43°-45°.
Temperature dependence of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of PSZST ceramics. The inset shows Tm and εm of the specimens with different Sm addition.
P-E hysteresis loops of PSZST specimens with various Sm content measured at 10 Hz. The inset shows the electric field induced strain of the specimens.
Schematic diagram to explain the electric field induced strain in PSZST ceramics with different phase structures. (a) AFE phase, (b) FE/AFE phase boundary, and (c) FE phase.
S-E loops of PSZST sample with x = 0.015 at different electric fields. The inset shows the maximum strain of the specimen as a function of electric field.
S-E loops of PSZST sample with x = 0.015 in wide frequency range (from 1 Hz to 10 Hz) under the electric field of (a) 13 kV/mm and (b) 15 kV/mm. The inset shows the maximum strain of the specimen as a function of measuring frequencies.
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