XRD patterns of UZO, ZEO-2, ZEO-4, and ZEO-8. The inset shows the magnified patterns in the vicinity of 30° ∼ 40°.
SEM images of UZO (a), ZEO-2 (b), ZEO-4 (c), and ZEO-8 (d).
EDS spectra of UZO (a), ZEO-2 (b), ZEO-4 (c), and ZEO-8 (d).
TEM and HRTEM images of ZEO-8. (a) TEM image; (b) high-magnification TEM image corresponding to the wrinkle region marked by red dot ring (R1) in (a); (c) HRTEM image corresponding to the region marked by the red dot ring in (b); (d) high-magnification TEM image corresponding to the edge region marked by red dot ring (R2) in (a); (e) HRTEM image corresponding to the region marked by the small red dot rectangle in (d); (f) HRTEM image corresponding to the region marked by the blue dot rectangle in (d).
XPS spectrum of ZEO-8. (a) XPS survey spectrum; (b) Zn 2p3/2 and Zn 2p1/2 XPS spectrum; (c) O1s XPS spectrum where two components (green curves) were used to deconvolute the experimental peak; (d) Eu 3d5/2 and Eu 3d3/2 XPS spectrum.
(a) Room temperature PL spectra of UZO, ZEO-2, ZEO-4, and ZEO-8; (b)excitation spectrum of ZEO-8; (c) visible light region of PL spectra with UV peak normalization; the inset illustrates the intensities of both green and red emissions via the mole ratio of Zn2+:urea.
(a) Schematic illustrating the proposed mechanism of energy transfer from the ZnO host to the Eu3+ ions. The dashed and the solid lines with arrows represent nonradiative and radiative processes, respectively; (b) schematic illustrating the proposed variation of energy transfer process with different power excitation.
Excitation power dependence of the room-temperature PL spectra of ZEO-8.
Green (a) and red (b) emission intensities and UV wavelength (c) as a function of excitation power density.
Degradation efficiency of ZEO-8 for RhB dye versus reaction time.
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