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Polymeric photovoltaics with various metallic plasmonic nanostructures
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10.1063/1.4790504
/content/aip/journal/jap/113/6/10.1063/1.4790504
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/6/10.1063/1.4790504
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Illustration of the thin-film polymeric OPV with metallic (Ag, Al, or Au) nanohole arrays. The thicknesses of ITO, PEDOT:PSS, P3HT: PCBM and bottom metal film are t1 = 50 nm, t2 = 10 nm, t3 = 30 nm, and h = 80 nm, respectively. The optical absorption spectrum A(λ) of OPVs (b) with and without the optimized bottom Ag nanohole array (D = 120 nm and P = 240 nm) (black solid and dashed line); (c) with and without the optimized Al nanohole array (D = 130 nm and P = 260 nm) (blue solid and dashed line);(d) with and without the optimized Au nanohole array (D = 110 nm and P = 220 nm) (olive solid and dashed line). The grey shaded region in (b)–(d) indicates the bandgap of P3HT; (e) total photon absorption A photon and total photon absorption enhancement (A photon/A photon-ref − 1)*100% of plasmonic OPVs using the optimized Ag, Al, and Au nanohole arrays across the solar visible spectrum (400 ∼ 650 nm).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

2D maps of the optical absorption enhancement in OPVs as a function of wavelength and period of bottom (a) Ag, (b) Al, and (c) Au nanohole arrays.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) An illustration of the polymeric thin-film OPV structure with a flat metal back reflector and a top Ag, Al or Au nanodisc array. The thicknesses of ITO, PEDOT:PSS, P3HT: PCBM and bottom metal film are t1 = 50 nm, t2 = 10 nm, t3 = 30 nm, and h = 80 nm, respectively. Optimal nanodisc diameters are D ≈ 30 nm for Ag or Au, and 40 nm for Al. Absorption spectra A(λ) of OPVs (b) with the Ag flat back reflector and the optimized top (i) Ag, (ii) Al, and (iii) Au nanodisc array (black, blue, and olive solid line, respectively); (c) with the Al flat back reflector and the optimized top (i) Ag, (ii) Al and (iii) Au nanodisc array (black, blue, and olive solid line, respectively); (d) with the Au flat back reflector and the optimized top (i) Ag, (ii) Al, and (iii) Au nanodisc array (black, blue, and olive solid line, respectively). The black dashed lines in (b)–(d) are the absorption spectra for reference OPVs without metallic nanodisc arrays. The grey shaded region in the absorption spectra indicates the bandgap of P3HT; (e) total photon absorption A photon and total photon absorption enhancement (A photon/A photon-ref − 1)*100% of plasmonic OPVs using the optimized Ag, Al, and Au nanodisc arrays across the solar visible spectrum (400 ∼ 650 nm).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) A schematic diagram of the polymeric thin-film OPV with a top nanodisc array (Ag, Al, or Au) and a bottom nanohole array (Ag, Al, or Au). The thicknesses of ITO, PEDOT:PSS, P3HT: PCBM, and bottom metal film are t1 = 50 nm, t2 = 10 nm, t3 = 30 nm, and h = 80 nm, respectively; the absorption spectra A(λ) of OPVs with optimized double plasmonic nanostructures consisting of (b) a bottom Ag nanohole array (D2 = 120 nm and P2 = 240 nm) and top (i) Ag, (ii) Al, and (iii) Au nanodisc arrays (D1 = 30 nm for Ag or Au, and 40 nm for Al, and P1 = 100 nm) (black, blue, and olive solid line, respectively); (c) a bottom Al nanohole array (D 2  = 130 nm and P2 = 260 nm) and top (i) Ag, (ii) Al, and (iii) Au nanodisc arrays (D1 = 30 nm for Ag or Au, and 40 nm for Al and P1 = 100 nm) (black, blue, and olive solid line, respectively); (d) a bottom Au nanohole array (D2 = 110 nm and P2 = 220 nm) and top (i) Ag, (ii) Al, and (iii) Au nanodisc arrays (D1 = 30 nm for Ag or Au, and 40 nm for Al, and P1 = 100 nm) (black, blue, and olive solid line, respectively). The black dashed lines in (b)–(d) are the absorption spectra A(λ) of the reference OPVs with only Ag, Al, and Au flat back reflectors, respectively. The grey shaded region in the absorption spectra indicates the bandgap of P3HT; (e) total photon absorption A photon and total photon absorption enhancement (A photon/A photon-ref − 1)*100% of plasmonic OPVs using the optimized double plasmonic nanostructures across the solar visible spectrum (400 ∼ 650 nm).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

2D maps of the optical absorption enhancement as a function of the incident wavelengths and period of bottom (a) Ag or (c) Al nanohole arrays; or as a function of the diameter of the top Ag ((b) and (d)) nanodisc array in the OPVs with double plasmonic nanostructures consisting of bottom Ag or Al nanohole arrays and top Ag nanodisc arrays.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Total photon absorption (A photon) and total photon absorption enhancement (A photon/A photon-ref − 1)*100% of plasmonic OPVs with top Ag nanodisc array and bottom Ag or Al nanohole arrays across the solar visible spectrum (400 ∼ 650 nm) as a function of the period of the bottom (a) Ag and (c) Al nanohole arrays, or the diameter of the top Ag ((b) and (d)) nanodisc arrays.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Angular dependence of the total photon absorption enhancement (A photon/A photon-ref − 1)*100% for thin film polymeric OPVs with different optimized double plasmonic nanostructures: (i) double plasmonic nanostructures consisting of a top Ag nanodisc array (D1 = 30 nm and P1 = 100 nm) and a bottom (a) Ag (D2 = 120 nm and P2 = 240 nm) or (b) Al (D2 = 130 nm and P2 = 260 nm) nanohole array (red curves); (ii) a bottom (a) Ag (D2  = 120 nm and P2 = 240 nm) or (b) Al (D2 = 130 nm and P2 = 260 nm) nanohole array only (blue curves); (iii) a top Ag nanodisc array (D1 = 30 nm and P1 = 100 nm) and a bottom (a) Ag or (b) Al flat back reflector (green curves), compared to a reference OPV with only a Ag or Al flat back reflector.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/113/6/10.1063/1.4790504
2013-02-14
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Polymeric photovoltaics with various metallic plasmonic nanostructures
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/6/10.1063/1.4790504
10.1063/1.4790504
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