Partial configuration of a Cu nanofoam created from a  single crystal. Shock loading is along the x-axis or .
The x – t diagram of for , showing different regimes: unshocked, elastic precursor, plastic wave, and elastic release.
The shock velocity–particle velocity ( ) plot for elastic and plastic shocks. HEL: Hugoniot elastic limit. (2.5 km s−1) and C 0 (0.16 km s−1) are the intercepts of the straight lines with the vertical axis.
The stress ( )–specific volume (V) curves obtained from MD simulations, fit to MD results, experiments on porous and full density Cu, 6,31 and predicted compacted Hugoniot.
(a) The shock pressure–temperature (P–T) plot for different (circles), along with the equilibrium melting curve (solid curve). 32 The dashed curves are guide to the eye. (b) MSDs obtained from the absorbing wall simulations. The numbers in (a) and (b) denote in km s−1.
Atomic configurations (projected onto the xy-plane) for (a) and t = 100 ps; (b) and t = 50 ps; (c) and t = 37 ps. Color-coding is based on . Shock direction: left right.
Atomic configurations (projected onto the xy-plane) for and t = 14 ps; (b) and t = 9 ps, showing forward or transverse flows (arrows). Color-coding is based on ux in km s– 1. Shock direction: left right.
The x – t diagram of a 1-nm thick slice cut along the void diameter in the shock direction (AOB in Fig. 1 ) obtained from the 2D binning analysis for , showing internal jetting (circled region), free surface jetting and atomization. Color-coding is based on ux . Shock direction: left right.
2D stress ( , and in GPa) maps on the xy-plane for and t = 50 ps [cf. Fig. 6(b) ]. Shock direction: left right.
2D temperature maps on the xy-plane for different shock strengths, showing hotspot formation due to internal jetting. Temperature is in K. Color is saturated above a chosen temperature. Shock direction: left right.
Atomic configurations (projected onto the xy-plane) showing nanojets at free surfaces for (a) and (b) . Atoms are color-coded with ux in km s−1. Shock direction: left right.
Jet velocity (a) and jet height (b) for different . The numbers denote in km s−1. The curves for are shifted by −50 ps.
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