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A flow simulation study of protein solution under magnetic forces
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10.1063/1.4792650
/content/aip/journal/jap/113/7/10.1063/1.4792650
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/7/10.1063/1.4792650

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

A schematic illustration of diamagnetic fluid under magnetic field. Gravity is compensated by magnetic force and convection in fluid is suppressed

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic illustration of magnetic force distributions around cells; arrows indicate magnetic forces acting on diamagnetic protein solutions. Dashed lines indicate the central axis of the magnet bore. (a) Magnetic force distribution along the central axis. Magnetic forces are uniform and vertical. (b) Magnetic force distribution off the central axis. Magnetic forces are non-uniform and non-vertical.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Crystallization process via the sitting drop vaporization method. Protein concentration at surface increases as water evaporates, resulting in the nucleation of protein crystals.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The front view of the superconducting magnet of the protein crystal formation system. Crystallization cells and a 3-D movable periscope are installed inside the magnet.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Bz (T) and (T2/m) versus z along the central axis. The maximum of is 1514 T2/m at z = 0 mm and the maximum of Bz is 16.1 T at z = −74 mm.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

at z = −5, −1, 0, +1, and +5 mm versus r. Box shows the location of cells.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

at z = −5, −1, 0, +1, and +5 mm versus r. Box shows the location of cells.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Schematic figure of the calculation domain.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Simulation result under gravity solely. Contours show the concentration of protein and values attached to contour lines indicate the weight fraction. Arrows indicate the velocity of fluid flow.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Schematic illustration of vertical magnetic force distribution in cells. Boxes indicate the positions of cells.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Simulation result under magnetic force, when  = −1350 T2/m at the center of the cell. The average magnitude of velocity is 3.5 × 10−8 m/s. The concentration distribution is layered at an angle.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Simulation result of case B. Velocity arrows are omitted because velocities are about 1.0 × 10−9 m/s, negligible small in our experimental time scale.  = −1047 T2/m at the center of the cell. The magnetic force in the cell deviates from the levitation condition. The stratiform concentration distribution means that diffusion dominates the transference of protein.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Simulation result of Case C.  = −1143 T2/m at the center of the cell. The magnetic force at the cell deviates from the levitation condition. The average magnitude of the flow velocities is 5.9 × 10−7 m/s. The stratified concentration distribution means that diffusion dominates protein crystallization.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

An example simulation of Marangoni convection under magnetic force. The concentration distribution is tilted to the left wall; the concentration distribution is stratified in the lower part of the cell.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Specifications of superconducting magnet.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Parameters of water.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Parameters of the protein for calculations.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/113/7/10.1063/1.4792650
2013-02-21
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A flow simulation study of protein solution under magnetic forces
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/7/10.1063/1.4792650
10.1063/1.4792650
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