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Non-polar p-type Zn0.94Mn0.05Na0.01O texture: Growth mechanism and codoping effect
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

XRD spectra of ZnO, ZnNaO, ZnMnO, and Zn(Mn, Na)O thin films deposited on quartz substrates under identical growth conditions (T s = 400 °C, PO2 = 45 Pa.). The inset shows the enlarged (0002) peaks of the films.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

SEM images of (a) nonpolar Zn(Mn, Na)O film and (b) polar ZnNaO film deposited on quartz substrates. (T s = 400 °C, PO2 = 45 Pa.)

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Cross-sectional TEM image of a Zn(Mn, Na)O film and the quartz substrate. A transition layer of several tens of nanometers thick between the substrate and the developed columnar structures is formed as marked. (b) HRTEM image of the interface between the film and the quartz substrate. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) pattern is shown in the inset. Grain domains with different orientation are roughly marked as denoted by A, B and C. (c) Zoom-in image showing well-resolved lattice planes taken from the middle portion of the columnar structures.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Mn k-edge XANES spectra: Mn metal, MnO, MnO2, and Zn(Mn, Na)O. Three characteristic peaks named A (6534 eV), B (6547 eV), and C (6556 eV) are marked.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The atomic arrangement of the hexagonal crystallographic cell of ZnMnO. (a) Zn-terminated ZnO (0002), (b) O-terminated ZnO (0002), (c) ZnO ( ) surface; (d) Mn-concentration dependent surface energy difference between ZnO and ZnO .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Magnetization curves taken at 300 K for (a) ZnNaO and ZnO, (b) Zn0.94Mn0.05Na0.01O thin films. The influence of the substrate has been subtracted.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

XRD patterns of the ZMNO films grown on quartz substrates at different growth temperatures with oxygen pressure maintained at 45 Pa during growth. Structural phases evolution in ZMNO films are clearly shown.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

FE-SEM images of the surface morphology evolution of ZMNO films grown at different temperatures: (a) 300 °C, (b) 400 °C, (c) 500 °C, and (d) 600 °C.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Non-polar p-type Zn0.94Mn0.05Na0.01O texture: Growth mechanism and codoping effect