Schematic illustration of device configuration.
SEM images of ZnO NRs grown in a predefined pattern on (a) AZO and (b) ITO substrates. The height of the ZnO NRs on the AZO substrate was highly uniform, as shown in a 30°-tilted SEM image (inset in (a)).
Photovoltaic performances of the P3HT/uniformly ordered ZnO NRs on (▲) AZO substrate and (●) P3HT/randomly orientated ZnO NRs on ITO substrate. (▪) Performance of planar heterojunction as reference. Inset shows the dimensions of the uniformly ordered ZnO NRs. The table summarizes the performances (Jsc and Voc ) of each device.
SEM images of the ZnO NRs (a) before and (b) after NAP treatments. There was no change in the morphology of ZnO NRs before and after NAP treatments.
XPS spectra of (a) N 1s core level in NAP-ZnO NRs and of (b) valence band regions, (c) Zn 2p3/2 core level, and (d) O 1s core level in (—) UT-ZnO NRs and (- - -) NAP-ZnO NRs.
(a) Dark current–voltage characteristics of (●) P3HT/NAP-ZnO NRs and (▪) P3HT/UT-ZnO NRs. Inset shows a schematic energy-level alignment at the P3HT/ZnO interface. (b) Photovoltaic performances of (▲) P3HT/UT-ZnO NR and (▪) P3HT/NAP-ZnO NR heterojunctions.
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