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Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of boron-doped layers in amorphous thin film silicon solar cells
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10.1063/1.4793587
/content/aip/journal/jap/113/9/10.1063/1.4793587
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/9/10.1063/1.4793587

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic diagram of the PECVD roll-to-roll deposition chambers used to grow thin film Si solar cells on metallic foil. Each chamber is dedicated to the deposition of a particular Si layer. From left to right, P-doped, undoped, and B- and C-co-doped Si layers.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Secondary electron SEM image of a FIB-prepared cross-sectional TEM sample of a solar cell. From the bottom to the top: Ag back contact reflector deposited on steel substrate (not shown), ZnO, a-Si:H, ITO, e-beam, and i-beam deposited Pt. (b) Bright-field TEM image of the B-doped a-Si:C:H (p)/ITO interface in the solar cell sample shown in (a). (c) Bright-field TEM image of a-Si:H test sample 1.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Background-subtracted EEL spectra acquired near the Si L2,3 edge for three different B concentrations labelled i, p, and p + in the (a) a-Si:C:H and (b) a-Si:H test samples. The spectra have been offset from each other vertically for clarity. The corresponding B concentrations measured using SIMS are given in Table I . The original spectra from the highly B-doped layers before background subtraction are shown as insets.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Background-subtracted EEL spectra acquired near the Si L1 edge for three different B concentrations labelled i, p, and p + in the (a) a-Si:C:H and (b) a-Si:H test samples. The spectra have been offset from each other vertically for clarity. The corresponding B concentrations measured using SIMS are given in Table I .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Black lines: Background-subtracted EEL spectra acquired near the B K edge for three different B concentrations labelled i, p, and p + in the (a)a-Si:C:H and (b) a-Si:H test samples. Coloured dotted lines: Log-normal fits of the EXELFS peak centred at ∼225 eV and of the B K edge. Different colours correspond to different B concentrations. Black lines with crosses: calculated B K edge for two different B concentrations. The corresponding B concentrations measured using SIMS are given in Table I . The spectra have been offset from each other vertically for clarity.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Background-subtracted EEL spectra acquired near the Si L1 edge at different positions on the sample near the a-Si:H/p-doped a-Si:C:H interface for the real solar cell sample. The red arrow indicates where the linescan was acquired in the bright-field TEM image shown as an inset. The scale bar in the bright-field TEM image is 50 nm.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Boron concentration in the p-doped a-Si:C:H layer in the real solar cell measured using core-loss EELS and SIMS. The B concentrations determined using core-loss EELS are extracted from the spectra shown in Fig. 6 . The bright-field TEM image in the background shows the ITO/p-doped a-Si:C:H/a-SiH layer sequence from which EELS linescan was recorded.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Volume plasmon peaks measured from the a-Si:H and a-Si:C:H test samples doped with different B concentrations (see Table I ). The small black vertical lines indicate the plasmon peak energies determined using Eq. (3) , which lie slightly to the right of each peak maximum. The data points are measured values, while the continuous lines are fitted curves. For clarity, the plots are offset from each other vertically. A typical original spectrum, showing zero-loss and plasmon peaks, is shown in the inset.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a,b) Plasmon peak energy and (c,d) peak width measured across the i, p and p + layers of the (a,c) a-Si:C:H and (b,d) a-Si:H test samples. The transitions between the differently-doped layers are shown using vertical dashed lines. The black lines show the B doping profiles measured using SIMS.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

B and C atomic concentrations measured using core-low EELS from the a-Si:H and a-Si:C:H test samples. The hydrogen concentration is not taken into account for the calculation of the atomic concentrations. The concentrations measured using SIMS assume an atomic density of 5 × 102 2 cm−3. Cross-sections are calculated using the Hartree-Slater model (Ref. 15 ). Calculation errors in cross-sections are estimated to be ∼20% (Ref. 2 ).

Generic image for table
Table II.

Parameters measured from volume plasmon spectra from the i, p, and p + layers of the a-Si:C:H and a-Si:H test samples (see text for details). Ep is the average plasmon peak energy (Fig. 8 ) and dEp/dC is thechange in average plasmon energy with B concentration. For each layer, CB-EELS and CB-SIMS are the average concentrations measured using EELS and SIMS, respectively (see Table I ) and CB-calc is calculated using Eq. (6) .

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/content/aip/journal/jap/113/9/10.1063/1.4793587
2013-03-07
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of boron-doped layers in amorphous thin film silicon solar cells
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/113/9/10.1063/1.4793587
10.1063/1.4793587
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