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Dielectric relaxation, lattice dynamics and polarization mechanisms in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based lead-free ceramics
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In 0.95[0.94Bi0.5 Na 0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3]-0.05CaTiO3 ceramics, the temperature TS (dielectric permittivity shoulder at about 125 °C) represents a transition between two different thermally activated dielectric relaxation processes. Below TS, the approximately linear decrease of the permittivity with the logarithm of frequency was attributed to the presence of a dominant ferroelectric phase. Above TS, the permittivity shows a more complicated dependence of the frequency and Raman modes indicate a sudden increase in the spatial disorder of the material, which is ascribed to the presence of a nonpolar phase and to a loss of interaction between polar regions. From 30 to 150 °C, an increase in the maximum polarization with increasing temperature was related to three possible mechanisms: polarization extension favoured by the simultaneous presence of polar and non-polar phases; the occurrence of electric field-induced transitions from weakly polar relaxor to ferroelectric polar phase; and the enhanced polarizability of the crystal structure induced by the weakening of the Bi-O bond with increasing temperature. The occurrence of different electric field induced polarization processes with increasing temperature is supported by the presence of additional current peaks in the current-electric field loops.
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