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Design of a surface-scanning coil detector for direct bacteria detection on food surfaces using a magnetoelastic biosensor
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Comparison between (a) the intracoil and (b) the extracoil detection methods.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Comparison between sensor signals measured outside and inside a solenoid coil.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Equivalent electric circuit for an ME sensor inductively coupled with an electromagnetic coil.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Definition of signal amplitude, Δ||.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Illustration of the coil's geometry and axes of orientation for the modeling; and (b) normalized magnitude of magnetic field on the YZ plane at X = 0.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Calculation model for the magnetic flux change: (a) ME sensor subjected to the time-varying magnetic field; and (b) the sensor modeled as a magnetic dipole.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Summary of the relationships among parameter, load impendence, mutual inductance, and magnetic flux.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Normalized signals of a 1 mm-long ME sensor measured with coils of different working length.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Comparison between normalized Δ|| experimental data and the calculated result of normalized magnetic flux change.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Using a surface-scanning coil detector positioned above a watermelon surface, the resonant frequency changes for ME biosensors (measurement and control sensors) exposed to at different concentrations were recorded as a function of exposure time.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

SEM images of measurement and control sensors' surfaces after exposure to different bacteria concentrations: (a) measurement sensor exposed to 1.5 × 10 CFU/mm, (b) measurement sensor exposed to 1.5 × 10 CFU/mm, (c) measurement sensor exposed to 1.5 × 10 CFU/mm, and (d) the control sensor exposed to 1.5 × 10 CFU/mm (Measurement bar: 5 m; environmental humidity: 95% RH).


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Scitation: Design of a surface-scanning coil detector for direct bacteria detection on food surfaces using a magnetoelastic biosensor