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High quality relaxed germanium layers grown on (110) and (111) silicon substrates with reduced stacking fault formation
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Epitaxial growth of Ge on Si has been investigated in order to produce high quality Ge layers on (110)- and (111)-orientated Si substrates, which are of considerable interest for their predicted superior electronic properties compared to (100) orientation. Using the low temperature/high temperature growth technique in reduced pressure chemical vapour deposition, high quality (111) Ge layers have been demonstrated almost entirely suppressing the formation of stacking faults (< 107 cm−2) with a very low rms roughness of less than 2 nm and a reduction in threading dislocation density (TDD) (∼ 3 × 108 cm−2). The leading factor in improving the buffer quality was use of a thin, partially relaxed Ge seed layer, where the residual compressive strain promotes an intermediate islanding step between the low temperature and high temperature growth phases. (110)-oriented layers were also examined and found to have similar low rms roughness (1.6 nm) and TDD below 108 cm−2, although use of a thin seed layer did not offer the same relative improvement seen for (111).
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