(a) Room temperature magnetic hysteresis loops measured along the in-plane and out-of-plane directions. (b) The thermal magnetic curve under vacuum at 1.0 kOe field perpendicular to the film.
Successive and in-situ observation of domain evolution with changing temperature under a 1.0 kOe field perpendicular to the film. (a)–(f) 298 K to 353 K, the domain configuration has no obvious change. (g)–(o) 356 K to 373 K, dark stripes are connected with each other and bright domains are gradually broken into bubbles. The white dash boxes in each image indicate the domains within the same position for reference. (p)–(r) Bubble domains preserve during the cooling process. The scan area is .
The temperature dependence of the average phase shift during MFM measurements (left scale), and the domain width as a function of the temperature between 298 K and 353 K (right scale).
Bubble nucleation during the cooling process under a fixed 1.0 kOe magnetic field perpendicular to the film. (a)–(c) 383 K to 298 K, (d)–(f) 523 K to 298 K. The scan area is .
(a) Bubble domains previously formed in fig. 4(e) after removing the external field. The scan area is . (b) Statistic distribution of the bubble domain sizes.
(a) Calculated magnetic field strength around the magnetic coated tip. (b) Schematic view of the tapping/lift mode during MFM measurements.
(a)–(g) Successive and in-situ observation of the domain evolution with changing temperature without external magnetic field. The scan area is . (a)–(f) Heating from 298 K to 373 K, (g) followed by cooling to 298 K. (h) Zoom-out image of (g), . (i) MFM image after a similar thermal process as (a)–(f) but the initial domain pattern is stripes. The scan area is . The white dash boxes indicate the areas which are locally modified by the scanning tip.
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