Schematic of the CWLA setup and the annealing chamber.
SEM images of Cu-poor and Cu-rich samples in the as-ED state and after CWLA at 50 W/cm2. The Cu-rich and Cu-poor films have somewhat different surface morphology and no apparent changes result from CWLA.
Composition of (a) Cu-poor and (b) Cu-rich samples as measured by EDS after CWLA for varying times at 50 W/cm2. Dotted lines represent composition of the films before KCN etching while solid lines show the composition after KCN etching. The Cu-poor films do not change significantly after KCN etching, while the Cu-rich films go from Cu-rich to Cu/In ≈ 1 (within estimated uncertainty). The lines serve only as a guide to the eye. The error bar for the measurements is ±2%.
θ-2θ x-ray diffraction results from (a) Cu-poor and (b) Cu-rich samples annealed for varying times at 50 W/cm2. Panel (c) shows the reduction in FWHM for the (112) peak after CWLA for varying times at 50 W/cm2, with a greater decrease for Cu-rich samples. The lines in Fig. 4(c) serve only as a guide to the eye.
Multilayer calculation of the steady-state electric field interaction of the 1064 nm laser with the Air/CuInSe2/Mo/Glass stack. Shows the normalized total power dissipation density as a function of depth.
Comparisons of Raman peak position and FWHM for the A1 vibration mode for (a) Cu-poor (Cu/In < 1) and (b) Cu-rich (Cu/In > 1) samples annealed for varying times at 50 W/cm2 using the 1064 nm laser. The lines serve only as a guide to the eye. The insets show the respective Raman spectra in the range from 125 to 300 cm−1.
The TC values calculated for (112), (220/204), and (312/116) diffraction planes.
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