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Effect of intermartensite transformation on twinning stress in Ni-Mn-Ga 10 M martensite
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) DC susceptibility measurement (or magnetization at 100 Oe) of alloy 1 with direct and reverse IMT temperatures marked as and for 10 M↔14 M transformations and as and for 14 M↔NM transformations. The difference between the initial and final value of susceptibility for 10 M martensite is caused by different twin microstructure configuration before and after the transformations.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

scan of alloy 1 at room temperature after (a) heating to austenite (373 K) and after subsequent cooling to (b) 256 K, (c) 253 K, and (d) 243 K. The {400} reflections of 10 M and 14 M phases are marked. Small unmarked peaks at about 66∘ are β–lines.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Martensite transformation temperature , IMT temperatures , , and thermodynamic equilibrium temperature , as a function of excess Mn, . Upper axis (/) presents electron per atom concentration. Dashed lines are just guides.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Experimental arrangement of sample with single twin boundary in VSM measurement and determination of switching field . (a) Initial configuration with single Type II twin boundary in the sample. (b) Final single twin variant configuration after MIR occurring at by twin boundary motion. (c) The MIR is clearly seen on magnetization curve as a sudden jump at . (d) as a function of temperature for alloys 1–5; some data were taken from Ref. .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Calculated twinning stress as a function of temperature (a) for alloys 1–3, (b) for alloy 4, and (c) for alloy 5. The IMT temperature and are indicated by arrows. Dashed curves are just guides.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Two possible scenarios for twinning stress increase by interaction with 14 M embryos. (a) The interaction of propagating twin boundary with embryos located at stationary lattice defects. (b) The interaction with 14 M embryos located on mobile defects related to twinning and atomic structure of the twin boundary.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Composition (at. %) and transformation temperatures (in K) of the alloys studied: forward martensite transformation temperature , reverse martensite transformation temperature , forward IMT start temperature , and reverse IMT start temperature .


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Effect of intermartensite transformation on twinning stress in Ni-Mn-Ga 10 M martensite