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Defects and electronic transport in hydrogenated amorphous SiC films of interest for low dielectric constant back end of the line dielectric systems
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10.1063/1.4818480
/content/aip/journal/jap/114/7/10.1063/1.4818480
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/114/7/10.1063/1.4818480

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Leakage currents as a function of annealing temperature for PECVD a-SiC:H and (b) Poole-Frenkel plot for data in Figure 1(a) .

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

EPR spectrum for the 400 °C anneal sample in Table I . For the other samples in Table I , we observe a similar 5 G wide featureless line with a zero crossing g = 2.0029.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

EPR spin density (squares) and leakage current (diamonds) vs anneal temperature for otherwise identical a-SiC:H films described in Table I .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

EPR and leakage current correlation of the 13a-SiC:H films investigated in this study. Note the three circled outlier points. These circled points correspond to sample designations in Table II : a-SiC:H5, a-SiC:H6, and a-SiC:H7.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

A representative spectrum for each of the defect assignments shown in Table II .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

A plot of leakage versus hydrogen content (a) and a plot of defect density versus hydrogen content (b).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Leakage current and coordination correlation of the 13 a-SiC:H films with varying composition investigated in this study. The circled outlier points are the same as those circled in Figure 4 and correspond to these designations in Table II : a-SiC:H5, a-SiC:H6, and a-SiC:H7.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

This figure illustrates ln(J/E) versus E plots for 4 representative samples. A corresponds to a-SiC:H13, B corresponds to a-SiC:H9, C corresponds to a-SiC:H7, and D corresponds to a-SiC:H1 in Table II . In (i) the data are accompanied by solid lines corresponding to the slope anticipated for PF utilizing the dc dielectric constants shown in Table  II . In (ii), we illustrate the same data but, in this case, compare the approximate slopes anticipated for SE. Note that the electric field E does not appear as a pre-factor in the standard SE expression. To obtain this slope, we simply divided the expression by electric field and then ignore a weak dependence in the logarithm of the reciprocal of electric field. In both plots, the data are indicated with capital letters and the calculated slope is indicated with lower case letters.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

A cartoon illustration of spin-dependent variable range hopping. A magnetic resonance event (on the left) makes it possible for an electron to tunnel from one site to another whereas, if the two defect sites had spins of the same orientation, the tunneling event would be forbidden. This schematic illustrates why magnetic resonance of the defects involved in transport may be detected via measurements of (tunneling) current versus magnetic field in the presence of the appropriate frequency microwave radiation.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

A comparison of conventional EPR (ΔB = 5 G) and SDT (ΔB = 10 G) spectrum for a-SiC:H13.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

EDMR amplitude and leakage current vs bias voltage for the a-SiC:H film.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

A plot of the spin dependent tunneling current (ΔI) divided by the total tunneling current (I). Note that this ratio is within our experimental error independent of voltage range between −2 and −1 V and +1 and +2 V. This suggests that the defect levels involved are in the mid to upper part of the SiC band gap.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Band diagrams for a Ti/5 nm a-SiC:H/Si capacitor sample at −1 V, 0 V, and +1 V. The +1 V and the −1 V biasing condition correspond to the approximate values at which measureable spin dependent tunneling EDMR can be observed. The results suggest that the defect levels involved must be in the mid to upper part of the SiC bandgap. The figures were made using the Boise state band diagram program.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Composition and bonding for four a-SiC:H samples utilized in the annealing study illustrated by Figures 1 and 2 . The elemental composition was determined by combined FTIR and NRA-RBS measurements previously described.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Density, dielectric constant, composition, leakage, band gap (Eg) and defect assignments for samples utilized in Figures 4–7 .

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/content/aip/journal/jap/114/7/10.1063/1.4818480
2013-08-15
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Defects and electronic transport in hydrogenated amorphous SiC films of interest for low dielectric constant back end of the line dielectric systems
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/114/7/10.1063/1.4818480
10.1063/1.4818480
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