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Vacancy reactions near the interface between electroplated Cu and barrier metal layers studied by monoenergetic positron beams
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10.1063/1.4818720
/content/aip/journal/jap/114/7/10.1063/1.4818720
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/114/7/10.1063/1.4818720

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

parameter as a function of incident positron energy for electroplated Cu without capping films. Annealing temperatures of sample are shown in the figure. curve for annealed pure-Cu is also shown (circle). Solid curves are fittings of diffusion equation for positrons to experimental data. Inset shows sample structure.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Annealing behavior of and trapping rate of positron κ for E-Cu without capping layer. parameters for annealed and deformed pure-Cu are also shown. Changes in and κ values are attributed to agglomeration/dissociation of vacancy-type defects.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Annealing behavior of for E-Cu with and without capping layers (TaN and SiCN). The values for annealed and deformed pure-Cu are also shown. The maximum process temperature during deposition of layers was 370 °C.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

curves for the as-deposited samples with capping layers (TaN and SiCN). Results for the non-capped sample annealed at 380 °C are also shown. Solid curves are fittings of the diffusion equation to experimental data. The inset shows derived depth distribution of for sample with TaN and SiCN.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Relationships between and for E-Cu with TaN and SiCN before and after annealing (770 °C). Arrows indicate increase in value of incident energy of positrons, . Figure also shows the (,) values corresponding to positron annihilation in E-Cu and near interface between the barrier metals and E-Cu.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Annealing behavior of measured at  = 4.5 keV for E-Cu with capping layers (TaN and SiCN).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Annealing behavior of measured at  = 1 keV for E-Cu with capping layers (TaN and SiCN).

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

First and second lifetimes (τ and τ) and the second intensity ( ) for E-Cu without capping. The incident energy of positrons was fixed at 20 keV.

Generic image for table
Table II.

τ, τ, and for E-Cu with capping. The incident energy of positrons was fixed at 1 keV.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/114/7/10.1063/1.4818720
2013-08-20
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Vacancy reactions near the interface between electroplated Cu and barrier metal layers studied by monoenergetic positron beams
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/114/7/10.1063/1.4818720
10.1063/1.4818720
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