S parameter as a function of incident positron energy E for electroplated Cu without capping films. Annealing temperatures of sample are shown in the figure. S−E curve for annealed pure-Cu is also shown (circle). Solid curves are fittings of diffusion equation for positrons to experimental data. Inset shows sample structure.
Annealing behavior of S and trapping rate of positron κd for E-Cu without capping layer. S parameters for annealed and deformed pure-Cu are also shown. Changes in S and κd values are attributed to agglomeration/dissociation of vacancy-type defects.
Annealing behavior of S for E-Cu with and without capping layers (TaN and SiCN). The S values for annealed and deformed pure-Cu are also shown. The maximum process temperature during deposition of layers was 370 °C.
S−E curves for the as-deposited samples with capping layers (TaN and SiCN). Results for the non-capped sample annealed at 380 °C are also shown. Solid curves are fittings of the diffusion equation to experimental data. The inset shows derived depth distribution of S for sample with TaN and SiCN.
Relationships between S and W for E-Cu with TaN and SiCN before and after annealing (770 °C). Arrows indicate increase in value of incident energy of positrons, E. Figure also shows the (S,W) values corresponding to positron annihilation in E-Cu and near interface between the barrier metals and E-Cu.
Annealing behavior of S measured at E = 4.5 keV for E-Cu with capping layers (TaN and SiCN).
Annealing behavior of S measured at E = 1 keV for E-Cu with capping layers (TaN and SiCN).
First and second lifetimes (τ1 and τ2) and the second intensity (I 2) for E-Cu without capping. The incident energy of positrons was fixed at 20 keV.
τ1, τ2, and I 2 for E-Cu with capping. The incident energy of positrons was fixed at 1 keV.
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