(a) Raman spectra for amorphous silicon and single crystalline silicon and (b) normalized Raman spectra for amorphous silicon and single crystalline silicon, where Raman intensity at 520 cm−1 is set to be 1.0.
Normalized Raman spectra for samples annealed at 620 °C from 10 min to 8 h and for single crystalline silicon.
Raman crystallinity obtained by the method proposed in this work vs. Hall mobility for phosphorous-doped samples followed by isothermal annealing at 620 °C.
Raman crystallinity as a function of annealing time at temperatures ranging from 560 °C to 640 °C.
Raman crystallinity as a function of annealing time at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 800 °C.
Arrhenius plot of the measured incubation time. Notice that the measured data do not fit to straight line. The estimated straight line was obtained using the measured data at low temperatures and using the value of nucleation activation energy of 3.9 eV.
In situ measurement of resistance of a silicon wafer as a function of time at 650 °C. Notice that the value of resistance approaches to that at thermal equilibrium beyond 4 min.
Grain size vs. annealing temperatures. Notice that the grain size is not sensitive to annealing temperature beyond 800 °C.
Raman crystallinity vs. annealing temperature ranging from 560 °C to 800 °C.
(a) Raman crystallinity as a function of annealing time for the non-doped and P-doped samples, (b) depth profile of P concentration calculated using TRIM-code simulation.
The measured and estimated incubation time vs. annealing temperatures.
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