No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
The evolution of airplanes
1. A. Bejan and J. H. Marden, “ Unifying constructal theory for scale effects in running, swimming and flying,” J. Exp. Biol. 209, 238–248 (2006).
2. R. H. Peters, The Ecological Implications of Body Size ( Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983).
3. K. Schmidt-Nielsen, Scaling: Why is Animal Size So Important? ( Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1984).
4. S. Vogel, Life's Devices ( Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1988).
5. E. R. Weibel, Summorphosis: On Form and Function in Shaping Life ( Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2000).
6. B. K. Ahlborn, Zoological Physics ( Springer, Berlin, 2004).
7. A. Bejan, Shape and Structure, From Engineering to Nature ( Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000).
8. A. Bejan, Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd ed. ( Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2006).
9. A. Bejan and S. Lorente, Design with Constructal Theory ( Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2008).
10. T. T. Soong, Fundamentals of Probability and Statistics for Engineers ( Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2004).
11. P. Vogt, Dictionary of Statistics and Methodology ( SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2005).
14. Y. S. Kim, S. Lorente, and A. Bejan, “ Distribution of size in steam turbine power plants,” Int. J. Energy Res. 33, 989–998 (2009).
15. P. M. Peeters, J. Middel, and A. Hoolhorst, “ Fuel efficiency of commercial aircraft—An overview of historical and future trends,” National Aerospace Library 201, 1–37 (2005).
17. A. Bejan, Convection Heat Transfer, 4th ed. ( Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2013).
Article metrics loading...
The prevailing view is that we cannot witness biological evolution because it occurred on a time scale immensely greater than our lifetime. Here, we show that we can witness evolution in our lifetime by watching the evolution of the flying human-and-machine species: the airplane. We document this evolution, and we also predict it based on a physics principle: the constructal law. We show that the airplanes must obey theoretical allometric rules that unite them with the birds and other animals. For example, the larger airplanes are faster, more efficient as vehicles, and have greater range. The engine mass is proportional to the body size: this scaling is analogous to animal design, where the mass of the motive organs (muscle, heart, lung) is proportional to the body size. Large or small, airplanes exhibit a proportionality between wing span and fuselage length, and between fuel load and body size. The animal-design counterparts of these features are evident. The view that emerges is that the evolution phenomenon is broader than biological evolution. The evolution of technology, river basins, and animal design is one phenomenon, and it belongs in physics.
Full text loading...
Most read this month