Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1. J. Y. Tsao, M. H. Crawford, M. E. Coltrin, A. J. Fischer, D. D. Koleske, G. S. Subramania et al., “ Solid-state lighting: Toward smart and ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 803 (2014).
2. C. Conte, F. Ungaro, A. Mazzaglia, and F. Quaglia, “ Photodynamic therapy for cancer: Principles, clinical applications, and nanotechnological approaches,” in Nano-Oncologicals ( Springer, 2014), pp. 123160.
3. B. Janjua, H. M. Oubei, J. R. D. Retamal, T. K. Ng, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang et al., “ Going beyond 4 Gbps data rate by employing RGB laser diodes for visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23, 1874618753 (2015).
4. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-i. Nagahama, “ High-brightness InGaN blue, green, and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 34, L797L797 (1995).
5. M. Kondo, N. Okada, K. Domen, K. Sugiura, C. Anayama, and T. Tanahashi, “ Origin of nonradiative recombination centers in AlGaInP grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Electron. Mater. 23, 355358 (1994).
6. W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor-Laser Fundamentals: Physics of the Gain Materials ( Springer, 1999).
7. J. Rennie, M. Okajima, G. Hatakoshi, and M. Watanabe, “ Room temperature CW operation of orange light (625 nm) emitting InGaAlP laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 19501952 (1992).
8. L. McGill, J. Wu, and E. Fitzgerald, “ Yellow-green emission for ETS-LEDs and lasers based on a strained–InGaP quantum well heterostructure grown on a transparent, compositionally graded AlInGaP buffer,” MRS Proc. 744, M7.5 (2010).
9. M. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, I. Novikov, S. Kuznetsov, L. Y. Karachinsky, N. Y. Gordeev et al., “ High power GaInP/AlGaInP visible lasers (λ = 646 nm) with narrow circular shaped far-field pattern,” Electron. Lett. 41, 741742 (2005).
10. L. Toikkanen, M. M. Dumitrescu, A. Tukiainen, S. Viitala, M. Suominen, R. Risto et al., “ SS-MBE-grown short red wavelength range AlGaInP laser structures,” in Photonics Europe, 2004, pp. 199205.
11. R. Bohdan, A. Bercha, W. Trzeciakowski, F. Dybała, B. Piechal, M. B. Sanayeh et al., “ Yellow AlGaInP/InGaP laser diodes achieved by pressure and temperature tuning,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 063105 (2008).
12. A. Bercha, R. Bohdan, W. Trzeciakowski, F. Dybała, B. Piechal, M. B. Sanayeh et al., “ Pressure and temperature tuning of InGaP/AlGaInP laser diodes from red to yellow,” Physica Status Solidi (B) 246, 508511 (2009).
13. K. Zheng, T. Lin, L. Jiang, J. Wang, S. Liu, X. Wei et al., “ High power red-light GaInP/AlGaInP laser diodes with nonabsorbing windows based on Zn diffusion-induced quantum well intermixing,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 4, 2729 (2006), available at
14. T. Lin, K. Zheng, C. Wang, and X. Ma, “ Photoluminescence study of AlGaInP/GaInP quantum well intermixing induced by zinc impurity diffusion,” J. Cryst. Growth 309, 140144 (2007).
15. T. Ng, H. Djie, S. Yoon, and T. Mei, “ Thermally induced diffusion in GaInNAs/GaAs and GaInAs/GaAs quantum wells grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013506 (2005).
16. B. S. Ooi, K. McIlvaney, M. W. Street, A. S. Helmy, S. G. Ayling, A. C. Bryce et al., “ Selective quantum-well intermixing in GaAs-AlGaAs structures using impurity-free vacancy diffusion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 17841793 (1997).
17. B.-S. Ooi, S. Ayling, A. Bryce, and J. Marsh, “ Fabrication of multiple wavelength lasers in GaAs-AlGaAs structures using a one-step spatially controlled quantum-well intermixing technique,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 944946 (1995).
18. K. Beernink, D. Sun, D. Treat, and B. Bour, “ Differential Al–Ga interdiffusion in AlGaAs/GaAs and AlGaInP/GaInP heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 35973599 (1995).
19. J. Lie, Semiconductor Quantum Well Intermixing: Material Properties and Optoelectronic Applications ( CRC Press, 2000), Vol. 8.
20. C. Hamilton, O. Kowalski, K. McIlvaney, A. Bryce, J. Marsh, and C. Button, “ Bandgap tuning of visible laser material,” Electron. Lett. 34, 665666 (1998).
21. T. Lin, H. Zhang, H. Sun, C. Yang, and N. Lin, “ Impurity free vacancy diffusion induced quantum well intermixing based on hafnium dioxide films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 29, 150154 (2015).
22. V. Hongpinyo, Y. Ding, C. Dimas, Y. Wang, B. Ooi, W. Qiu et al., “ Intermixing of InGaAs/GaAs quantum well using multiple cycles annealing,” in IEEE Photonics Global Conference (IPGC), 2008, pp. 13.
23. P. Gareso, M. Buda, L. Fu, H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “ Influence of SiO2 and TiO2 dielectric layers on the atomic intermixing of InxGa1−xAs/InP quantum well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22, 988 (2007).
24. R. Diehl, High-Power Diode Lasers: Fundamentals, Technology, Applications ( Springer Science & Business Media, 2003), Vol. 78.

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



We report on a novel quantum well intermixing (QWI) technique that induces a large degree of bandgapblueshift in the InGaP/InAlGaP laser structure. In this technique, high external compressive strain induced by a thick layer of SiO cap with a thickness ≥1 m was used to enhance QWI in the tensile-strained InGaP/InAlGaP quantum well layer. A bandgapblueshift as large as 200 meV was observed in samples capped with 1-m SiO and annealed at 1000 °C for 120 s. To further enhance the degree of QWI, cycles of annealing steps were applied to the SiO cap. Using this method, wavelength tunability over the range of 640 nm to 565 nm (∼250 meV) was demonstrated. Light-emitting diodes emitting at red (628 nm), orange (602 nm), and yellow (585 nm) wavelengths were successfully fabricated on the intermixed samples. Our results show that this new QWI method technique may pave the way for the realization of high-efficiency orange and yellow light-emitting devices based on the InGaP/InAlGaP material system.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd