Elastic Aftereffects and Dielectric Absorption in Glass
1.W. L. Bragg, Atomic Structure of Minerals (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1937).
2.B. E. Warren, “X‐ray determination of the structure of liquids and glass,” J. App. Phys. 8, 645–654 (1937).
3.W. Kuhn [“Elasticity and viscosity of high polymers,” Zeits. f. Angew. Chem. 52, 289–301 (1939)] has developed a theory of elasticity and viscosity which is similar in some respects to that of the writer. Proceeding in a more or less formal way he generalizes Maxwell’s equation to express Young’s modulus of elasticity as the sum of a series of terms each of which has the form in which is the modulus at and λ is the characteristic relaxation time for the process of elastic adjustment. Kuhn points out that each term corresponds to a given type of molecular binding (Zusammenhaltsmechanism), and that the magnitude of the various λ values, and to a much less degree the values, determine whether the material will have properties like rubber, steel, glass, etc.
3.A. Smekal [“The complexity of the freezing (or setting) process in silicate glasses,” Zeits. f. Physik. Chemie B48, 114–118 (1940)] has proposed a similar theory in connection with his work on the strength of glass. He has used data by Taylor and Dear (reference 4) to demonstrate the existence of at least two stages or mechanisms of elastic adjustment and viscous flow in silicate glasses, and to compute the constants characteristic of each stage.
4.Nelson W. Taylor and Robert F. Doran, “The elastic and viscous properties of several potash‐silica glasses in the annealing range of temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 24, 103–109 (1941).
4.Cf. also thesis for M. S. degree of R. F. Doran, The Pennsylvania State College, January, 1939.
5.Nelson W. Taylor, Edward P. McNamara, and Jack Sherman, “A study of the elastico‐viscous properties of a soda‐lime‐silica glass at temperatures near the “transformation point,” J. Soc. Glass Tech. 21, 61–81 (1937).
5.Nelson W. Taylor and Paul S. Dear, “Elastic and viscous properties of several soda‐silica glasses in the annealing range of temperature,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 20, 296 (1937).
5.Nelson W. Taylor and Robert F. Doran (reference 4).
6.Edward J. Murphy and H. H. Lowry, “The complex nature of dielectric absorption and dielectric loss,” J. Phys. Chem. 34, 598–620 (1930).
7.E. von Schweidler, “Studien über die Anomalien im Verhalten der Dielektrika,” Ann. d. Physik 24, 711 (1907).
8.B. E. Warren and J. Biscoe, “Fourier analysis of x‐ray patterns of soda‐silica glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 259–265 (1938).
9.Quoted from Murphy and Lowry (reference 6).
10.Cf. J. T. Littleton and G. W. Morey, Electrical Properties of Glass (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York 1933). Fig. 32, p. 100.
11.R. Houwink, Elasticity, Plasticity and Structure of Matter (Cambridge University Press, 1937), pp. 185, 186.
12.G. W. Morey, Properties of Glass (Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, 1938), pp. 316–319.
13.N. W. Taylor, “The law of annealing of glass: Quantitative treatment and molecular interpretation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 85–89 (1938).
14.Nelson W. Taylor, “Viscosity and electrical resistivity and their bearing on the nature of glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 22, 1–8 (1939).
15.P. Debye, Polar Molecules (Chemical Catalog Co., New York, 1929), pp. 42, 43.
16.P. Debye, reference 18, p. 106.
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