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Determination of Constitution Diagrams with X‐Rays
1.This states that if the equilibrium between the phases is influenced only by temperature and pressure and not by gravitational, electrical, or magnetic forces or by surface conditions, then where P is the number of stable phases present, F is the number of degrees of freedom, and C is the number of components. A phase may be denned as any homogeneous and physically distinct part of a system that is separated from the other parts of the system by definite bounding surfaces. The number of degrees of freedom of a system is the number of independently variable factors (such as temperature and pressure of the system, and concentration of any phase) that may be altered without causing any phases to disappear or any new phases to form. The number of components of a system is the smallest number of independently variable substances by means of which the composition of any phase present can be expressed. In most alloy systems this is the number of elemental metals present in the alloy.
2.A tie‐line is a line joining the two points that give the composition of the two coexisting phases in equilibrium.
3.F. Foote and E. R. Jette, Metals Tech. 7 (September, 1940).
4.This method of plotting is possible because the sum of the perpendicular distances from any interior point to the three sides is always the same, a length which is taken as 100 percent.
5.Certain rules govern the angle relationships that are permitted at these corners. These are discussed in textbooks on the subject but are not within the scope of this article.
6.A. J. Bradley, H. J. Goldschmidt, H. Lipson, andA. Taylor, Nature 140, 543 (1937).
7.A. J. Bradley and H. Lipson, Proc. Roy. Soc. 167, 421 (1938).
8.A. J. Bradley, W. L. Bragg, andC. Sykes, Iron and Steel Inst. 141, 63 (1940).
9.A. H. G. Anderson and E. R. Jette, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals 24, 375 and (1936).
10.A. J. Bradley and A. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A166, 353 (1938).
11.C. S. Barrett, A. H. Geisler, and R. F. Mehl, T. P. 1275, Metals Tech. 8 (February, 1941).
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