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On twin density and resistivity of nanometric Cu thin films
K. Barmak, A. Darbal, K. J. Ganesh, P. J. Ferreira, T. Sun, B. Yao, A. P. Warren, K. R. Coffey, and J. M. Rickman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 32, 061503 (2014).
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Crystal orientation mapping in the transmission electron microscope was used to quantify the twin boundary length fraction per unit area for five Ta
38Si14N48/SiO2 encapsulated Cu films with thicknesses in the range of 26–111 nm. The length fraction was found to be higher for a given twin-excluded grain size for these films compared with previously investigated SiO2 and Ta/SiO2 encapsulated films. The quantification of the twin length fraction per unit area allowed the contribution of the twin boundaries to the size effect resistivity to be assessed. It is shown that the increased resistivity of the Ta
38Si14N48 encapsulated Cu films compared with the SiO2 and Ta/SiO2 encapsulated films is not a result of increased surface scattering, but it is a result of the increase in the density of twin boundaries. With twin boundaries included in the determination of grain size as a mean-intercept length, the resistivity data are well described by 2-parameter Matthiessen's rule summation of the Fuchs-Sondheimer and Mayadas Shatzkes models, with p and R parameters that are within experimental error equal to those in prior reports and are p = 0.48(+0.33/−0.31) and R = 0.27 ± 0.03.
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