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The Orientation Dependence of the Rate of Grain Boundary Migration
1.P. A. Beck and Hsun Hu, “Recrystallization texture and coarsening texture in high purity aluminum,” Trans. A.I.M.E. 185, 627 (1949).
2.J. S. Bowles and W. Boas, “The effect of crystal arrangement on secondary recrystallization in metals,” J. Inst. Metals 74, 501 (1948).
3.M. L. Kronberg and F. H. Wilson, “Secondary recrystallization in copper,” Trans. A.I.M.E. 185, 501 (1949).
4.G. W. Rathenau and J. F. H. Custers, “Secondary recrystallization of face‐centered Ni‐Fe alloys,” Philips Research Reports 4, 241 (1949).
5.Unpublished work, carried out at this laboratory, gave similar results for the recrystallization of rolled copper single crystals. Maddin, Mathewson, and Hibbard [“The origin of annealing twins in brass,” Trans. A.I.M.E. 185, 655 (1949)] found similar orientation relationship for the recrystallization of extended brass single crystals, and Kronberg and Wilson (see reference 3) for the recrystallization of lightly rolled polycrystalline copper with cube texture.
6.W. G. Burgers and P. C. Louwerse, “Über den Zusammenhang zwischen deformationsvorgang und rekristallisationstexture bei aluminium,” Zeits. f. Physik 67, 605 (1931).
7.W. G. Burgers, “Rekristallisation, Verformter Zustand und Erholung” (1941).
8.A. E. van Arkel, “Quelques phenomenes de recristallisation,” Rev. d. Met. 33, 197 (1936).
9.C. S. Barrett, “Recrystallization texture in aluminum after compression,” Trans. A.I.M.E. 137, 128 (1940).
10.C. G. Dunn, “Recrystallization textures. Symposium on cold working of metals,” Trans. A.S.M., 41A (1948).
11.P. A. Beck and P. R. Sperry, “Strain induced grain boundary migration in high purity aluminum,” J. App. Phys. 21, 150 (1950).
12.Paul Lacombe and Louis Beaujard, “Etude metallographique et cristallographique de la croissance et de la structure des pellicules d’oxydation anodique de l’aluminum,” in the book published by the Comité Général D’Organisation des Industries Mecaniques, “ Etudes sur les Aspects des Pellicules D’Oxydation Anodique Formées sur L’Aluminum et ses Alliages” (1944).
12.Andre Hone and E. C. Pearson, “Grain orientation in aluminum revealed by anodic film,” Metal Progress 53, 363 (1948).
12.P. R. Sperry, “Method for studying grain boundary migration in aluminum,” Trans. A.I.M.E. 188, 103 (1950).
13.The fairly well‐defined orientation relationship found here with artificial nucleation (Fig. 3) is in sharp contrast to the large scattering of orientations found by Burgers [W. G. Burgers and J. C. M. Basart, “Rekristallisation von Aluminium‐Einkristallen I.,” Zeits. f. Physik 51, 545 (1928)] for the recrystallized grains in slightly deformed aluminum single crystals, without artificial nucleation. In accordance with a suggestion by F. C. Frank, the University of Bristol, England, it is very likely that the scatter of orientations in Burgers’ experiments was a result of lack of nuclei in orientations most favorable for growth. Such a condition could have resulted from the small extent of the deformation used. In the present experiments nuclei of a sufficient variety of orientations were produced artificially. In the recrystallization experiment with copper, described by Kronberg and Wilson (see reference 3), the lightly deformed matrix was polycrystalline, with a cube texture. The sharp recrystallization texture found by these investigators was probably a result of the availability of a large variety of nucleus orientations, due to inhomogeneous deformation at grain boundaries.
14.It is interesting that, on the other hand, the sub‐boundaries observed by P. Lacombe and L. Beaujard [“Les imperfections de structure des cristaux uniques d’aluminium pur,” Revue de Metallurgie 45, 317 (1948)] in polygonized aluminum are apparently highly mobile
14.[A. Guinier and P. Lacombe, “L’état polygonisé, du cristal metallique,” Métaux et Corrosion (1948) No. 212], even though they are located between lattice regions of nearly the same orientation.
14.Possibly, this high mobility is connected with the fact that such a sub‐boundary may be considered as a set of parallel line dislocations; the mechanism of boundary migration here is probably the one proposed by W. G. Burgers [“Recovery and recrystallization viewed as processes of dissolution and movement of dislocations,” Proc. Koninklÿke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen, 50, 452 (1947)]. On the other hand, in the more general case, where two sets of intersecting edge dislocations are necessary to describe the boundary, it is more likely that grain boundary migration takes place by individual atomic migrai ion, as described further below.
15.The fact that in fine grained high purity aluminum gradual grain growth is impeded in the presence of a strong single orientation texture [P. A. Beck and P. R. Sperry, “Effect of recrystallization texture on grain growth,” Trans. A.I.M.E. 185, 240 (1949)] is probably closely related to the described effect. However, in this case the situation is not nearly as clear‐cut as in the phenomenon just discussed, since the driving energy (in this case grain boundary surface energy) as well as the mobility becomes very small.
15.The same applies to the remarkable stability of a sharply defined “cube texture” in copper (see reference 3), and probably also to the small “insular” grains left unabsorbed by a surrounding recrystallized grain of nearly the same orientation [P. Lacombe and Aurel Berghazen, “Relations d’orientation entre monocristaux métallique de recristallization et petits cristaux inclus,” Métaux et Corrosion (1949), No. 281].
16.Discussion by C. S. Smith of the paper by Hibbard, Liu, and Reiter, “Annealing twins in copper and 70–30 alpha‐brass,” Trans. A.I.M.E. 185, 635 (1949).
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