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Quantum Efficiency of Ruby
1.Quantum efficiency ≡ number of photons out/number of photons absorbed.
2.T. H. Maiman, Phys. Rev. Letters 4, 564 (1960).
3.T. H. Maiman, R. H. Hoskins, I. J. D’Haenens, C. K. Asawa, and V. Evtuhov, Phys. Rev. 123, 1151 (1961).
4.J. P. Wittke, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 2333 (1962).
5.The R lines are the sharp spectrical lines observed from due to transitions between the ground state and the state. They occur in the red region of the spectrum and are the familiar lines that give laser action in ruby.
6.O. Deutschbein, Ann. Phys. 14, 712 (1932);
6.O. Deutschbein, 20, 828 (1934). , Ann. Phys.
6.For a recent study of the vibrational properties of ruby and references to the earlier work see A. Mitsuishi, H. Yoshinaga, S. Fujita, and Y. Suemoto, Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 1, 1 (1962).
7.G. Burns and Marshall I. Nathan (to be published).
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