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STB Model and Transport Properties of Pyrolytic Graphites
1.C. A. Klein, Rev. Mod. Phys. 34, 56 (1962).
2.W. V. Kotlensky and H. E. Martens, “Structural Transformation in Pyrolytic Graphite Accompanying Deformation,” Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, 1962, Tech. Rept. No. 32‐360.
3.O. J. Guentert and S. Cvikevich in Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Carbon, edited by S. Mrozowski, M. L. Studebaker, and P. L. Walker (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. 1, p. 473.
4.D. E. Soule, IBM J. Res. Develop. (to be published).
5.It should be kept in mind that, since PG has zones that are misaligned with regard to the reference plane, some mixing of basal‐plane and c‐axis behavior could occur; it is not easy to disentangle consequences of this situation.
6.C. A. Klein, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3338 (1962).
7.J. W. McClure and L. B. Smith in Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Carbon, edited by S. Mrozowski, M. L. Studebaker, and P. L. Walker (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1963), Vol. 2, p. 3.
8.J. W. McClure, IBM J. Res. Develop. (to be published).
9.G. R. Hennig in Semiconduction in Molecular Solids, edited by H. A. Pohl (The Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1960), p. 123.
10.P. R. Wallace, Phys. Rev. 71, 622 (1947).
11.McClure’s n [Eq. (18) of Ref. 7] refers to the number of free holes and electrons per atom and must be divided by the atomic volume to yield numbers per unit volume; the constants (2.46 Å) and (6.71 Å) are related to the fundamental displacement vectors of the graphite lattice.
12.E. H. Putley, The Hall Effect and Related Phenomena (Butterworths Scientific Publications Ltd., London, 1960), Chap. 3.
13.D. E. Soule, Phys. Rev. 112, 698 (1958).
14.G. H. Kinchin, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A217, 9 (1953).
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17.M. S. Dresselhaus and J. G. Mavroides, IBM J. Res. Develop. (to be published).
18.J. W. McClure, J. Chim. Phys. 57, 859 (1960).
19.C. A. Klein, M. P. Lepie, W. D. Straub, and S. M. Zalar, “Development of an Ultra‐High Temperature Pyrolytic Graphite Thermocouple,” Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright‐Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1963, Tech. Rept. No. ASD‐TDR‐63‐844.
20.D. E. Soule in Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Carbon, edited by S. Mrozowski, M. L. Studebaker, and P. L. Walker (Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1962), Vol. 1, p. 13.
21.Note that pure as‐deposited PG obeys strictly the same pattern, and thus demonstrates that the presence of crystal defects in turbostratic graphite does indeed result in an electron deficit. From Fig. 4 we infer that the Fermi level is depressed by about 0.02 eV, in substantial agreement with previous conclusions based on the resistivity behavior at room temperature (Ref. 6).
22.R. R. Heikes and R. W. Ure, Thermoelectricity: Science and Engineering (Interscience Publishers Inc., New York, 1961), Chap. 11.
23.L. C. Blackman, G. Saunders, and A. R. Ubbelohde, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A264, 19 (1961).
24.N. R. Thielke and R. L. Shepard in High‐Temperature Thermometry Seminar, edited by W. R. Grimes and D. R. Cuneo (U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, 1960), Tech. Rept. No. TID‐7586, Pt. 1, p. 44.
25.With boron‐rich pyrographalloys ( %B) we measured around 8 μV/°C at room temperature (see Ref. 6), in excellent agreement with the present calculations.
26.When the Fermi level is depressed by more than 0.1 eV
27.C. A. Klein and M. P. Lepie, Solid‐State Electron. 7, 241 (1964).
28.C. A. Klein and M. G. Holland, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 8, 208 (1963);
28.Phys. Rev. (to be published).
29.C. F. Gallo, R. C. Miller, P. H. Sutter, and R. W. Ure, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3144 (1962).
30.K. Komatsu, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 6, 380 (1958).
31.In harmony with the model illustrated in Fig. 1; recent specific‐heat measurements on as‐deposited PG [B. J. C. van der Hoeven and P. H. Keesom, Phys. Rev. 130, 1318 (1963)] appear to justify the point of view adopted in Sec. II.
32.Soule’s (Ref. 13) work indicates that in monocrystalline graphite at helium temperatures; with regard to turbostratic structures we have no independent element of judgment.
33.At low temperatures, electrical resistivity characteristics of turbostratic PG are known to be “flat”; in Ref. 6 we argue that this is consistent with
34.J. M. Ziman, Electrons and Phonons (Oxford University Press, London, 1960), Chap. 12.
35.D. Bowen, Phys. Rev. 76, 1878 (1949).
36.The matter will be discussed in a subsequent paper.
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