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Ultimate Tensile Properties of Elastomers. IV. Dependence of the Failure Envelope, Maximum Extensibility, and Equilibrium Stress‐Strain Curve on Network Characteristics
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1.“Symposium on Stress‐Strain‐Time‐Temperature Relations in Materials,” ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 325 (1962), pp. 60–89.
2.T. L. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 27 (1964).
3.T. L. Smith, Proceeding of the 4th International Congress Rheology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1965), Part 2, pp. 525–541.
4.J. C. Halpin, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3133 (1964).
5.T. L. Smith SPE Trans. (to be published).
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8.(a) E. Guth, P. E. Wack, and R. L. Anthony, J. Appl. Phys. 17, 347 (1946);
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11.J. C. Halpin and F. Bueche, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 3142 (1964).
12.H. W. Greensmith, L. Mullins, and A. G. Thomas, “Strength of Rubbers,” in The Chemistry and Physics of Rubber‐Like Substances, edited by L. Bateman (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963), Chap. 10.
13.R. F. Landel and R. F. Fedors, “Rupture of Amorphous, Unfilled Polymers,” in Fracture Processes in Polymeric Solids, edited by B. Rosen (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1964), Sec. IIIB.
14.L. R. G. Treloar, The Physics of Rubber Elasticity (The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1958), 2nd. ed., Chap. 6.
15.The equation given by Treloar contains instead of for the second term in the brackets of Eq. (2). Since.14 it follows that As data in this paper are at and on vulcanizates for which n is greater than about 30, the series expansion shows that all terms except the first can be neglected.
16.G. Natta, G. Crespi, and U. Flisi, J. Polymer Sci. A1, 3659 (1963).
17.The concept of the equivalent random link has certain deficiencies, especially at high extensions. This matter is discussed by M. W. Volkenstein in Configurational Statistics of Polymer Chains (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1963), pp. 198–199, who also gives references to earlier discussions. We are indebted to the referee for calling this matter to our attention.
18.A. Young and T. Murphy, “Tables of the Langevin Function and its Inverse,” Royal Society Depository No. 21. A short table and an approximate polynomial expression for the inverse Langevin function are given by L. R. C. Treloar in Trans. Faraday Soc. 50, 881 (1954).
19.M. C. Morris, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 8, 545 (1964).
20.Viton B is a hydrofluorocarbon elastomer which is similar to Viton A‐HV; the average molecular weight per backbone atom is 43.3. Viton A‐HV is prepared from vinylidine fluoride and hexafluoropropylene; the respective molarproportions are 1 to 0.285. The viscosity‐average molecular weight of the gum stock is which should be close to its weight‐average molecular weight; the number‐average molecular weight is about The authors are indebted to the Elastomer Chemicals Department of the E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company, Inc., and especially to Dr. E. K. Gladding, for kindly furnishing the above information about their products.
21.T. L. Smith, J. Polymer Sci. 32, 99 (1958).
22.T. L. Smith, paper presented at the International Symposium on Macromolecular Chemistry, Prague, 1965; J. Polymer Sci. (to be published).
23.(a) F. Bueche, J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 1, 240 (1959);
23.(b) Physical Properties of Polymers (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1962), Chap. 6.
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27.F. Bueche, J. Polymer Sci. 24, 189 (1957); see also, Ref. 30(a).
28.F. Bueche and T. J. Dudek, Rubber Chem. Tech. 36, 1 (1963).
29.P. J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1953), p. 462.
30.(a) F. Bueche, Rubber Chem. Tech. 32, 1269 (1959);
30.(b) (b) Chapt. 10 of Ref. 23(b).
31.L. M. Epstein and R. P. Smith, Trans. Soc. Rheol. 2, 219 (1958).
32.F. Bueche, B. J. Kinzig, and C. J. Coven, Polymer Letters 3, 399 (1965).
33.M. Kurata and W. H. Stockmayer, Advan. Polymer Sci. 3, 196 (1963).
34.P. J. Flory (private communication).
35.P. J. Flory, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 5222 (1956).
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