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Alignment of nematic liquid crystals by inhomogeneous surfaces
1.For a review, see J. Cognard, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Suppl. 1, 1 (1982).
2.See, for examples, Ref. 3, M. A. Handschy, N. A. Clark, and S. T. Lagerwall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 471 (1983); and references therein.
3.H. L. Ong, R. B. Meyer, and A. J. Hurd, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 2809 (1984).
4.See for example, Y. Kantor and D. J. Bergman, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 22, 41 (1984) and references therein.
5.See, for example, B. Sturgeon, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 309, 231 (1983).
6.R. B. Meyer, Alignment of liquid crystals by inhomogeneous surfaces, Oral presentation at the Seventh International Conference on Liquid Crystals, Bordeaux, France, 1978.
7.K. Okano and J. Murakami, J. Phys. (Paris) 40, C3‐525 (1979);
7.K. Okano, N. Matsuura, and S. Kobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, L109 (1982);
7.H. Mada, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 51, 43 (1979);
7.H. Mada, 53, 127 (1979); , Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.
7.H. Mada, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 372 (1981);
7.H. Mada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 701 (1981);
7.H. Mada, Mol. Cryst Liq. Cryst. Lett. 82, 53 (1982).
8.P. Sheng and P. J. Wojtowicz, Phys. Rev. A 14, 1883 (1976);
8.P. Sheng, Phys. Rev. A 26, 1610 (1982). In the Sheng and Wojtowicz paper, the surface potential was derived for the polar angle dependent part. Using a similar proof, one can prove that the potential for the azimuthal part would have the same functional form as they obtained.
9.P. G. de Gennes, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford University, Oxford, 1974).
10.For a discussion of the bulk equation, see Refs. 9 and 11. See Ref. 12 for a discussion of the anomalous stiffness and tilt angle effects due to with inhomogeneous surfaces.
11.J. L. Ericksen, Trans. Soc. Rheol. 11, 5 (1967).
12.D. W. Berreman, J. Phys. (Paris) 40, C3‐58 (1979).
13.K. L. Chopra, Thin Film Phenomena (McGraw‐Hill, New York, 1969).
14.R. S. Sennett and G. D. Scott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 203 (1950).
15.The alignment by metal films may be due to either the metal or its oxide since Al, Ag, and Cu can all be oxidized in moist air.
16.It has been found that for a given thickness, films produced even at quite large angles of incidence of the metal on the substrate were similar in structure and optical properties to those produced at normal incidence. (See Ref. 14). For Ag and Cu, we found that the resulting alignments are always vertical for any angle of incidence of the evaporation.
17.M. M. Cheung, S. D. Durbin, and Y. R. Shen, Opt. Lett. 8, 39 (1983);
17.I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, R. Normandin, and V. C. S. So, Phys. Rev. A 27, 3251 (1982).
18.DMOAP is N,N‐dimethyl‐N‐octadecyl‐3‐aminopropyltrimethoxysilyl chloride. Available from Dow Corning, Midland, Michigan as silane XZ‐2230.
19.F. J. Kahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 386 (1973). However, the silane treatment used by us is a simplified method which has been used in Flanders. (See Ref. 24).
20.T. Andersson and C. G. Granquist, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1673 (1977).
21.T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783 (1977).
22.H. L. Ong, A. J. Hurd, and R. B. Meyer (unpublished).
23.It has been found by that square‐wave gratings with periods below about 5 μm are required to produce good alignment of certain room temperature nematics. This is consistent with the results of Wolff et al. (Ref. 25) who found that 1 μm wide grooves produced by scribing with a diamond stylus had to be placed closer than about every 10 μm to produce good alignment of nematics.
24.D. C. Flanders, D. C. Shaver, and H. I. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 597 (1978).
25.U. Wolff, W. Greubel, and H. Kruger, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 23, 187 (1973).
26.D. C. Flanders, H. I. Smith, H. W. Lehmann, R. Widmer, and D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 112 (1978);
26.H. W. Lehmann and R. Widmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 163 (1978).
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