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Electron swarm properties in CCl2F2 and mixtures with N2 under steady‐state conditions
1.Another theoretical approach, the Monte Carlo technique, simulates the random nature of the electron‐molecule collisions and consists of the calculations of a series of electron trajectories;
1.see, for instance, the paper by I. D. Reid, Aust. J. Phys. 32, 231 (1979).
2.J. P. Novak and M. F. Fréchette, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4368 (1985).
3.S. Okabe and T. Kouno, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1335 (1985).
4.Another version, the pressure variation method, is also used:p is varied for a fixed d, keeping the ratio E/p constant. However, it has been established that the initial photoelectric current may significantly vary with the gas pressure in the region where prebreakdown ionization takes place and leads to considerable errors [A. E. D. Heylen, Int. J. Electron. 56, 603 (1984)].
5.M. F. Fréchette, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3684 (1986).
6.Recent experimental work by J. Fletcher and H. A. Blevin [J. Phys. D 14, 27 (1981)] has shown a rapid increase in secondary electrons by ion impact on the cathode at in considering the small gap lengths used in the present work, these secondary effects were not taken into account.
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8.The results of H. Tagashira, T. Taniguchi, K. Kitamori, and Y. Sakai[J. Phys. D 11, L43 (1978)], obtained using a Boltzmann‐equation analysis, indicate that the swarm parameters for steady‐state and pulsed Townsend reach equilibrium values after initial relaxation periods. For pulsed Town‐send and in argon at a nanosecond time scale is observed, so that the first‐order coefficients relax; relaxation time increases with lower E/p values
8.[K. Kitamori, H. Tagashire, and Y. Sakai, J. Phys. D 13, 535 (1980)];
8.see also K. Kumar[J. Phys. D 14, 2199 (1981)] for a discussion of nonequilibrium in time.
9.While the hydrodynamic description presupposes a distribution function independent of its initial state and applies to situations where the relative gradients of electron density are small, departure from basic assumptions may lead to nonequilibrium effects which, in turn, may be sometimes accounted for and/or neglected according to the physical dimensions of the experiment or theoretical considerations. Boundary effects may be considerable at low E/p; the ratio of the diffusion coefficient to the drift velocity may be taken as an estimation of the nonequilibrium region [J. J. Lowke, J. H. Parker, Jr., and C. A. Hall, Phys. Rev. A 15, 1237 (1977)].
9.At the cathode, there is a region over which the electron energy of the swarm is randomized; the presence of the anode results in an abrupt change in the equilibrium state [Y. Sakai, K. Tagashira, and S. Sakamoto, J. Phys. B 5, 1010 (1972)].
9.Some experimental evidence appears as luminous layers in low‐pressure noble gases and is consistent with a theoretical study using a Monte Carlo simulation [M. Hayashi, J. Phys. D 15, 1411 (1982)].
9.At a certain high E/p value, the electrons gain more energy from the electric field than they can lose at a collision; for this happens at [M. A. Folkard and S. C. Haydon, J. Phys. B 6, 214 (1973)].
9.The energy transmitted by the field to the swarm should be balanced by the electron‐molecule collisions or, in other words, the mean‐free path for all types of exchange during collisions should be considerably smaller than the linear dimension of the discharge. An overview of non‐equilibrium phenomena in space is given by E. Marode and J. P. Boeuf [Proceedings of the XVI International Conference on Phenomena Ionized Gases, edited by W. Bötticher, H. Wenk, and E. Schulz‐Gulde (Henkel kGaA, Büsseldorf, FRG, 1983), Invited Papers, p. 206].
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27.M. F. Fréchette and J. P. Novak, Limit‐Field Behavior of Various Gas Mixtures Discussed in the Framework of a Boltzmann‐Equation Analysis, 1986, IREQ; manuscript available from the present author.
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31.M. F. Fréchette and J. P. Novak, Boltzmann‐Equation Analysis of Electron Transport Properties in Gas Mixtures, 1986, IREQ; manuscript available from the present author.
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