Volume 85, Issue 10, 15 May 1999
Index of content:
- GENERAL PHYSICS: NUCLEAR, ATOMIC, AND MOLECULAR (PACS 01-39)
Surface discharge and tracking phenomena induced on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer dielectric material by acid rain85(1999); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.370507View Description Hide Description
The discharge and tracking phenomena induced on the polymer dielectricmaterials by acid rain are investigated by the accelerated aging of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer in artificial rainwater in this article. Based on the investigation of acid rain, the artificial rainwater is chosen to agree well with the actual ingredients of precipitation. The influence of hydrophobicity degradation on the surface discharge and tracking is studied. The relations among the surface discharge, tracking, hydrophobicity, and microchemical structure and physical morphology of material are furthermore discussed. Experimental results show that the polymer dielectricmaterials suffer a large attack and degradation from acid rain. The dielectricsurface degrades and becomes rough, and the hydrophobicity decreases so that the surface discharge and tracking may occur on them.
85(1999); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.370508View Description Hide Description
Several experimental effects that occur in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy are examined: apparent hysteresis effects in force probes and frequency sweeps and distortions in imaging. It is found through examinations of the phase space that they can all be reduced to one common cause: the existence of more than one stable state of the tip vibration for certain parameters. It is shown that the experimental effects can be explained considering only the phase space under the assumption that measurement noise exists. Numerical simulations confirm the theoretical and experimental findings.