Index of content:
Volume 96, Issue 10, 15 November 2004
- PLASMAS AND ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES (PACS 51-52)
96(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1805726View Description Hide Description
Several interrelated phenomena near the surface ablated into a discharge plasma, such as ablation and ionization in accelerated plasma are studied. Two characteristic ablation modes are identified, namely, ablation mode with a velocity at the Knudsen layer edge smaller than the local sound speed and a velocity at the Knudsen layer edge close to the sound speed. The existence of these two ablation modes is determined by the current density in the acceleration region. The nonequilibrium ionization region in the presence of strong electromagnetic plasma acceleration is studied. In the subsonic regime, the ionization region thickness is proportional to the ionization rate and inversely proportional to the magnetic field. Conditions for ionization equilibrium in the accelerating plasma are determined. The specific example of a micropulsed plasma thruster is considered. It is concluded that both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium ionization regimes occur in this device.
Nonuniform radio-frequency plasma potential due to edge asymmetry in large-area radio-frequency reactors96(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1803608View Description Hide Description
In small area capacitive reactors, the rf and dc components of the plasma potential can be assumed to be uniform over all the plasma bulk because of the low plasma resistivity. In large area reactors, however, the rfplasma potential can vary over a long range across the reactor due to rf current flow and the nonzero plasma impedance. A perturbation in rfplasma potential, due to electrode edge asymmetry or the boundary of a dielectric substrate, propagates along the resistive plasma between capacitive sheaths. This is analogous to propagation along a lossy conductor in a transmission line and the damping length of the perturbation can be determined by the telegraph equation. Some consequences are the following: (i) The spatial variation in sheathrf amplitudes causes nonuniform rf power dissipation near to the reactor sidewalls. (ii) The surface charge and potential of a dielectric substrate can be negative and not only positive as for a uniform rfplasma potential. The variation of sheath dc potential across a dielectric substrate causes nonuniform ion energy bombardment. (iii) The self-bias voltage depends on the plasma parameters and on the reactor and substrate dimensions—not only on the ratio of electrode areas. (iv) The nonuniform rfplasma potential in presence of the uniform dc plasma potential leads to nonambipolar dc currents circulating along conducting surfaces and returning via the plasma. Electron current peaks can arise locally at the edge of electrodes and dielectric substrates. Perturbations to the plasma potential and currents due to the edge asymmetry of the electrodes are demonstrated by means of an analytical model and numerical simulations.
96(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1803929View Description Hide Description
We describe the structure and behavior of a nonequilibrium cesium-seeded helium plasma in a disk-shaped magnetohydrodynamic generator. Excellent time-resolved optical measurements clarify the spatial distribution of the electron temperature. A correlation analysis and the visualization of the plasma structure reveal its propagation phenomena from upstream to downstream and the transformation from a homogeneous quasisteady state to a self-consistent periodical state. A linear perturbation analysis suggests that the inhomogeneous plasma structure associated with the unique electron temperature behavior is closely related to ionizationinstability due to weak seed ionization.
96(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1803920View Description Hide Description
In this paper we investigate the time evolution of laser plasmas generated in atmospheric air by ultrashort laser pulses. The detected quantity is the time integrated photon yield emitted by the plasma, which monotonically depends on the amount of energy transferred by the laser pulses to the plasma. We study the effect of a preionizing pulse on the efficiency of plasma generation by a second “probe” pulse and demonstrate that preionization results into a considerable increase of the overall photon yield emitted by the plasma. An explanation of this phenomenon relies on the fact that the larger the electron density experienced by the probe pulse, the more effective the energy transfer from the probe pulse to the residual plasma, the more intense is the light from the plasma. With this concept in mind and by relying on a pump-probe technique, we also measure the total photon yield emitted by the plasma produced by the combination of the two pulses, as a function of their relative delay time. We observe a considerable increase in the plasma brightness for delay times much longer than the laser pulse duration. This phenomenon is associated with an increase of the electron density even after the end of the pump pulse, due to secondary electron-impact ionization originating from highly-energetic primary photoelectrons, and to superelastic electron-molecule collisions. We also develop a simplified model describing the time evolution of the electron and ion densities and the electron temperature. From the calculated time evolution of these quantities produced by a single laser pulse, we can predict with a good approximation the main features of the plasma generated by an ultrashort laser pulse.