Schematic diagram of a conventional OLED device and of the light paths of the three modes of emitted light: external mode, glass guided modes, and high-index guided modes.
Three-dimensional FDTD calculation structure and parameter definitions for the square-lattice 2D PC OLED. Left diagram, side view; right diagram, top view.
The results of the numerical model for the time dependence of the light-propagation path in (a) the conventional OLED and (b) the 2D PC OLED .
(a) FE-SEM micrographs of the tilted cross-sectional view of the 2D low-index material nanopattern . (b) FIB-SEM image of a PC OLED device on a 2D PC layer .
(a) Current density-brightness and current density-efficiency characteristics and (b) Current-voltage curves of OLEDs with and without a 2D PC layer at the interface between the glass layer and the ITO electrode.
Emission spectra of OLEDs with and without a 2D PC layer at the interface between the glass layer and the ITO electrode.
Angular dependence of the emission spectra of (a) the conventional OLED and (b) the 2D PC OLED .
Angular dependence of Commission Internationale de’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of OLEDs with and without a 2D PC layer .
(a–c) Measured 2D far-field intensity profiles of (a) a conventional OLED, (b) a PC OLED , and (c) a PC OLED . (d–f) Intensity profiles along the horizontal line (A–B) of the 2D far-field intensity profiles for (d) a conventional OLED, (e) a PC OLED , and (f) a PC OLED .
Normalized EL intensity at as a function of aging time of the conventional OLED (dotted line), and of the OLED containing a 2D PC layer (solid line).
Measured relative extraction efficiency of a conventional OLED and two PC OLEDs ( and ).
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